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Full text of "Twenty-one years' work in the Holy Land : (a record and a summary), June 22, 1865 - June 22, 1886"

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JUNE 22, 1865— JUNE 22, 1886. 

Published for the Committee of the Palestine Exploratioii Fund. 



2, Paternoster Square. 






This little work is designed to answer a question 
often put, — why the Society has no resume of its work 
for popular use ? This volume endeavours to give 
such a resume ; it points out in general terms the 
Biblical gains resulting from the work of the Society ; 
and it shows, also in general terms, what remains to 
be done. 

The detailed answer to the inquiry as to the actual 
results of our work is to be found in the great work 
called the '* Survey of Western Palestine," and in the 
maps published by the Society. 

The present moment has been chosen for the 
appearance of this book, because this day is the 
twenty-first anniversary of the Foundation of the 

W. B. 

June 22, 1886, 

1, Adam Street, Adelpiii. 


The Dome of the Rock Frontispiece 

Cromlech in Galilee... ... 22 

Base of Column ... ... 38 

Plan of Church ... ... 39 

Columbaria, near Beit J ibrin 40 

Tell Hum 41 

Niche at Banias ... ... 41 

Plan of Synagogue ... ... 41 

Ornamental Work from Ne- 

bratein and Kerazeh 42, 43 

Church on Mount Gerizim ... 46 

Synagogue at Kefr Birim ... 47 

E.xcavalions at Jerusalem ... 48 
Plan showing the various 

theories of the Walls of 

Jerusalem ... .., ... 49 

Jewish Lamp... ... ... 54 

Characters on the Foundation 

Stones ... ... ... 5^ 

Inscribed Jar Handles ... 57 

Gallery near " E " Wall ... 58 
Capitals supporting the Dome 

of the Rock 60 

Lamps found in the E.xcava- 

tions ... ... ... 61 

View of the jerafeh Valley ... 65 

Kadesh Barnc. ... ... 67 

Haifa 78 

Cromlech in Galilee 79 

Tomb at Teiasir 83 

Crusading Castle ... ... 88 

Rock Altar 90 

'Ain Jidy 92 

Mar Saba 94 

vSea of Galilee ... ... 98 

Beersheba ... ... .•■ 103 

Gilgal 107 

Tomb of Phinehas ... ... 108 

Tomb of Eleazar ... ... 109 

Ed Dhaheriyeh ... 1 12 

Mount Tabor 113 

Rock Rimmon ... ... 117 

Colonnade at Samaria ... 123 

Gath? 126 

Tomb of Simon the Just ... 130 

El Medyeh 131 

Diagram of Eastern Triangu- 

lation 137 

Cromlech, near Heshbon ... 138 

View in Wady in Arabeh ... 140 

Lake of Honis ... ... 155 

Tomb of Nicodemus ... 157 

Inscription ... ... ... 167 

Head of Hadrian 171 

Gaza Statue ... ... ... 172 

The Stone of Bethphage ... 177 

Sassanian Building at Amman 179 

Plan and Section of ditto ... 179 

Rude Stone Monuments 184, 185 

Tomb near Jeremiah's Grotto 187 

Plan of ditto, ditto 1S9 

Jacob's Well 195, 196 198 

Excavations ... ... ... 204 














XII. OKITUARY - - - 201 






This great Work embodies the whole of the researches conducted 
by the Society. It consists of — 

1. The GREAT MAP of Western Palestine. In 26 sheets, on 

the scale of one inch to the mile. 

2. The MEMOIRS arranged according to sheets. By Major 

Conder, D.C.L., and Lieut. -Col. Kitchener, R.E. In 3 vols. 

3. The NAME LI.STS, containing 10,000 names collected during 

the Survey. Transliterated and translated by Professor 

4. The FAUNA and FLORA of Palestine. By the Rev. Canon 


5. SPECIAL PAPERS on Various Points of Sacred Archeology. 

By Col. Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., 
Col. Sir Charles Warren, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.R.S., Major 
Conder, D.C. L., R.E., M. Clermont Ganneau, and others. 

6. JERUSALEM. With a portfolio of 60 plates. By Col. Sir 

Charles Warren and }tIajor Conder. Contains an account 
of all the researches which have been made in the Holy 
Land up to the year 1884. 


TINE. By Edwanl Hull, F.R.S. 

These volumes are illustrated by many hundreds of drawings, 
photographs, maps, and plans, chiefly drawn by Major Conder and 
Lieut. -Col. Kitchener. No expense has been spared to make the 
work complete and worthy of its subject. No more important con- 
tribution to Sacred Geography and Archeology has ever been made. 
Only 500 copies were printed, of which some copies remain, and 
are sold for the Committee by their agent, Alexander P. Watt, 
Publisher and Literary Agent, 34, Paternoster Row. 





H E Society- 
known as the 
Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund was 
first formally 
constituted at a 
public meeting 
held in Willis's 
Rooms on Fri- 
day, June 22nd, 
1S65, the Arch- 
bishop of York 
being in the 

The objects 
and intentions 

of the founders were the prosecution of s)-stematic 


and scientific research in all the branches of inquiry 
connected with the Holy Land, and the principal 
reason alleged for conducting this inquiry was the 
illustration of the Bible which might be expected to 
follow such an investigation. In the following pages 
the reader will learn briefly how far the Society has 
been successful. 

In his opening address, the Archbishop laid dow^n 
certain principles on which, he said, the work of the 
society should be based. It is, in fact, in recognition 
of these principles that the work has always been 
carried on. These were : — 

1. That whatever was undertaken should be carried 

out on scientific principles. 

2. That the Society should, as a body, abstain from 


3. That it should not be started, nor should it be 

conducted, as a religious society. 
The object of the first law was to ensure that the 
results of inquiry and exploration, whatever they 
might prove, should command from the world the 
same acceptance as a new fact reported from a 
physical laboratory, and that the work should be 
faced in the same spirit of fearless investigation into 
the truth as obtains in scientific research. The con- 
duct of the principal part of the work by officers of 
the Ro)-al l'2ngineers has effectually ensured this 
object. No dispute has ever arisen, nor will an) 


question ever arise, concerning the statements or 
reports furnished b}' the Society's agents. Those who 
remember the bickerings which formerly prevailed 
over every estimate as to measurements, heights, 
distances, and positions, as one book of Syrian travel 
followed another, will recognise the enormous advan- 
tage of having these points ascertained and laid 
down for us once for all by men whose official position 
and professional reputation, as well as the methods 
of research which they adopted, place their reports 
beyond question. 

As regards the second point, it was at first intended 
that the Committee should place on record nothing 
but the bare facts discovered. Wilson's Report of 
1866, and Warren's Letters of 1867-70, contain, in fact, 
very little indeed beyond the barest facts. But it was 
presently found impossible, and, indeed, undesirable, 
to keep out of the Society's publications the element 
of personal opinion. Warren recorded, for instance, 
after his return, in addition to the official report of 
his excavations, the conclusions which he had come 
to and their bearing upon the problems. Conder, 
in his reports written in the field during the Surve}', 
set down from the very first, and unreservedly, his 
own conclusions as to identifications and topography. 
The subscribers to the Socict}', it was then discovered. 
desired nothing more than the publication of such 
arguments and sucii conclusions. Tlicy were found 


to give life to the bare facts of the survey. These, 
and other dissertations, views and suggestions, made 
the pages of the Society's Journal full of interest. 
But for them the Quarterly Statement would have 
been no more interesting than a volume of name 
lists, and the Committee would have lost their most 
powerful means of keeping up and extending the 
interest in their work. At the same time, these 
arguments and conclusions have always been pub- 
lished with reserve. They are not advanced as the 
opinions of the Committee, which, as a Committee, 
has no opinion, but are signed by their author, and 
he alone, as is stated in every number, is responsible 
for them. 

The third principle secured the independence of 
the Association in preventing it from being attached 
to any religious body, church, or creed. As then con- 
stituted, and as it now exists, it simply invites support 
from all those persons who happen to be interested in 
a certain collection of books, apart from any doctrines 
which may have been deduced from those books, or 
any opinion as to the weight of those books, and 
apart from the fact that to very many these are, and 
always will be, the most precious books in the world. 
The Society numbers among its supporters Christians 
and Jews — Christians, that is, of every church, Protes- 
tants and Catholics, Anglicans, Greeks and Romans, 
Nonconformists and Unitarians. No questions of 


doctrine will be found treated in the Society's publi- 
cations, nor any of ecclesiastical discipline and 
authority, nor any which concern the genuineness 
and authenticity of the books concerned. 

At the outset of this record it is the special duty 
of the Committee to express, firstly, their profound 
gratitude to the War Office for granting the services 
of Royal Engineers for the execution of the work, and 
secondly, their sense of the surprising good fortune 
which has attended them in the personal character and 
the remarkable abilities of the officers who have worked 
for them. Among the many distinguished officers 
who at present adorn the scientific branch of the 
Service there are none more distinguished than Sir 
Charles Wilson and Sir Charles Warren. There was 
no officer of the corps more highly esteemed than 
the late Major Anderson. As for Captain Conder, he 
will be regarded as nothing short of a personal friend 
by everyone who reads these pages ; he has been for 
fifteen long years the chief prop and mainstay of 
the Society ; he is par excellence the Surveyor of the 
Holy Land. The military record of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Kitchener promises to eclipse his civil dis- 
tinction. But it must never be forgotten that before 
he went to Egypt he surveyed Galilee for this Society 
and Cyprus for the Colonial Office. 

At the first meeting some hopes were put forward 
by the speakers which have been realised beyond 


expectation, and some which have been so far dis- 
appointed. After this lapse of time it is interesting 
to recall what was said and what was thought on that 
occasion. For instance, it was then confidently ex- 
pected by ever^'body that a few excavation^ in 
Jerusalem would quickly decide the whole of the 
vexed questions as to the holy sites. Sir Austin 
Layard, fresh from the excavations which enabled 
the world to reconstruct the history of a long-lost 
people, spoke hopefully of the light which might 
be thrown upon the ancient history, the arts, and 
the architecture of the Jewish nation by examining 
the mounds which were already known to exist in 
the country, and by excavating on the sites of the 
ancient cities. Our excavations since that time in Jeru- 
salem and elsewhere have yielded a very small amount 
of information on Jewish art, though something on 
Jewish architecture, and, as yet, there have been no 
excavations at all of the mounds, high places, and 
ancient sites, outside Jerusalem, with the exception 
of the mounds at Jericho ; that is a work which we 
hope to take in hand when we have accomplished 
what we have already commenced. The Count de 
Vogiie, at the same meeting, v.cnt so far, in his zeal 
for excavation, as to say that nothing then remained 
above ground in Palestine to be discovered. Yet since 
that day the Moabite Stone, the Phoenician inscription 
in the Pool of Siloam, the stone of Herod's Temple, 


the head of Hadrian's Statue, the Stone of Bethphage, 
the Stone of Zoheleth (i Kings i. 9), the boundary 
inscriptions of Gezer (Joshua xvi. 3-10, &c.), the 
Sassanian monument at Amman, the Palace of 
Mashita, many ancient synagogues, and hundreds of 
ruined towns, all above ground, have been discovered. 
Sir Roderick Murchison advocated a geological and 
geographical survey of the country, — we have since 
executed both of these Surveys, with results of far 
greater importance than he expected. Mr. Palgrave 
dwelt upon the ethnological side and the importance 
of noting the points of distinction among the people 
now inheriting the country. " The Land," he said, " is 
a land of petrifactions, where remains which might 
elsewhere have perished or become wholly decom- 
posed still remain intact and preserve their distinctive 
lineaments." The Dean of Westminster took a 
similar line in recommending a careful study of the 
manners and customs of the people. We have done 
something towards this in publishing the papers 
of Mrs. Finn and Mr. Klein, while our officers have, 
in the course of the Survey, made many valuable 
observations on the subject. But we are now 
embarked upon an enterprise in this direction on a 
far greater scale than that cortemplated by 
Dean Stanley. The spirit of research has, since 
his speech on that day, become more scientific. 
Such an inquiry as that then contemplated would have 


been neither scientific nor complete. It can now, 
thanks to the hibours of the Anthropological Society, 
be both scientific and complete. As will be seen 
presently, we hope to make this inquiry in a more 
systematic manner than was then contemplated, and 
over a far wider area. Lastly, Prof Owen and Canon 
Tristram spoke of the natural history of the country 
and of the many gaps which then existed in our know- 
ledge. Thanks mainly to the exertions of the latter 
gentleman we have been able to fill up many of those 

The meeting was followed by an appeal for funds, 
letters v/ere inserted in the papers, and the other 
usual methods were adopted to obtain publicity, 
Mr. George Grove, the foremost among the original 
founders of the Society, being its first honorary secre- 
tary and spokesman. 

The first Committee consisted of the following 

gentlemen : — 

Archbishop of York. Samuel Gurney, M.P. 

Duke of Argyll. R. Culling Hanbury, M.P. 

Duke of Devonshire. A. H. Layard, M.P. 

Earl of Derby. Walter Morrison, M.P. 

Earl Russell. John Abel Smith, M.P. 

Earl of Shaftesbury. William Tite, M.P. 

Pjishop of London. Dean of St. Paul's. 

Bishop of Oxford. Dean of Westminster. 

Bishop of Ely. Dean of Christ Church. 

The Speaker. Sir Henry Rawlinson, K.C.B. 
Sir S. Morton Peto, Bart. Sir Roderick Murchison, K.C.B. 



Prof. Owen, F.R S. 
Rev. Prof. Pusey, D.D. 
Canon Ernest Hawkins. 
Rev. E. H. Plumptre. 
Rev. A. W. Thorold. 
Rev. H. P Tristram, F.R.S. 
Rev. George Williams. 
Rev. S. Martin. 
Rev. N. Macleod, D.D. 
Dr. Joseph Hooker. 
Dr. William Smith. 
W. Hepworth Dixon. 

J. Fergusson, F.R.S. 

F. Waymouth Gibb C.B. 
Ambrose de Lisle. 
Samuel Morley. 

John Murray. 
Antonio Panizzi. 
Henry Reeve. 

G. Gilbert Scott. 

William Spottiswoode, F.R.S. 

William Tipping. 

W. S. W. Vaux, F.R.S. 

Mr. George Grove {^Hon. Sec.) 

Mr. John Abel Smith, M.P., and Mr. Robert 
Culling Hanbury were the first treasurers ; they 
were subsequently succeeded by Mr. Walter Morrison. 
The hon. secretary was afterwards joined by the 
Rev. F. W. Holland, and a sub-committee consisting 
of the Archbishop of York, the Dean of Westminster, 
and Prof. Owen was appointed to draw up a state- 
ment of the general objects of the Association. 
When this statement was produced, in October, 1865, 
the Committee of 45 had been swollen to the number 
of 79, and then contained, in addition to the first 
published list, such names as Lord Strangford, Lord 
Stratford do Redclifife, Lord Carnarvon, Sir Moses 
Montefiore, Dean Howson, Dr. Temple, Dr. Vaughan, 
Dr. Allon, Dr. Porter, Prof Rawlinson, Mr. Beresford 
Hope, Mr. Macgregor, and many others of like weight 
and note. 


The Original Prospectus, when it left the hands of 
the sub-committee, was as follows : — 

No country should be of so much interest to us as that in 
which the documents of our Faith were written, and the 
momentous events they describe enacted. At the same time 
no country more urgently requires illustration. The face 
of the landscape, the climate, the productions, the manners, 
dress, and modes of life of its inhabitants, differ in so many 
material respects from those of the western world, that 
without an accurate knowledge of them it is not too much 
to say that the outward Ibrm and complexion of the events 
and much of the significance of the records must reiuain more 
or less obscure. Even to a casual traveller in the Holy 
Land the Bible becomes, in its form, and therefore to some 
extent in its substance, a new book. Many an allusion 
which hitherto had no meaning, or had lain unnoticed, 
starts into prominence and throws a light over a whole 
passage. It is not to be expected that the modes of life 
and manners of tlie ancient Israelites will be revealed by 
any discovery of monuments in the same fulness that those 
of the Egyptians and Assyrians have been. But still, infor- 
mation of value cannot fail to be obtained in the process. 
Much would be gained by obtaining an accurate map of the 
country ; by settling disputed points of to])Ography ; by 
identifying ancient towns of Holy Writ with the modern 
villages which are their successors ; by bringing to light the 
remains of so many races and generations which must lie 
concealed under the accumulation of rubbish and ruins on 
which those villages stand ; by ascertaining the course of 
the ancient roads ; by the discovery of coins, inscriptions, 
and other relics — in short, by doing at leisure and system- 
atically that which has hitherto been entirely neglected, 
or done only in a fragmentary manner by the occasional 


unassisted efforts of hurried and inexperienced travellers. 
Who can doubt that if the same intelligence, zeal, know- 
ledge, and outlay were applied to the exploration of Pales- 
tine that have recently been brought to bear on Halicar- 
nassus, Carthage, Cyrene — places without a single sacred 
association and with little bearing on the Bible — the result 
would be a great accession to our knowledge of the 
successive inhabitants of Syria — Canaanite, Israelite, 
Roman ? 

Hitherto the opportunity for such systematic research has 
been wanting. It appears now to have arrived. The visit 
of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales to the Mosque at Hebron 
has broken down the bar which for centuries obstructed 
the entrance of Christians to that most venerable of the 
sanctuaries of Palestine ; and may be said to have thrown 
open the whole of Syria to Christian research. 

The survey of Jerusalem at present in progress under the 
direction of Captain Wilson, R.E. (a survey supported by 
the private liberality of a single person ; as it proved, the 
grant of 500/. made by the generous person referred to, 
was unequal to the work, which was only accomplished 
by the generosity of Captain Wilson, who gave his whole 
time and labour for nothing), has shown how much may 
be done with tact, temper, and opportunity, without 
arousing the opposition of the authorities or inhabitants. 
Recent letters of Sir H. James and others in the Times 
have borne testimony to the remarkable fitness of Captain 
Wilson for such undertakings, and have pointed out 
other places where explorations might be advantageously 
carried on. 

// is therefore proposed to raise a fund to be applied to 
the purposes of investigating the Holy Land by employing 
competent persons to examine the following points: 

I. ARCHy^iOLOGY — Jerusalem alone would furnish an ample 



field in this department. What is above ground will be 
accurately known when the present survey is completed ; 
but below the surface hardly anything has yet been dis- 
covered. The Tombs of the Kings on Mount Zion— the 
course of the Tyropoeon Valley— the real extent of the 
Temple enclosure — the site of the Tower of Antonia — of 
the Palace of Herod— of Ophel — of the Pool of Bethesda — 
the position of the tcwers of Hippicus and Psephinus — the 
spring and conduit of Hezekiah — are all awaiting excava- 
tion ; and it is not too much to anticipate that every foot in 
depth of the " sixty feet of rubbish " on which the city 
stands, will yield interesting and important materials for the 
Archaeologist or the Numismatist. 

Beyond the Holy City the country is full of sites which 
cannot fail amply to repay examination. Of these a few 
only may be enumerated : — Mount Gerizim, possibly the 
Moriah of Abraham's sacrifice, certainly the Holy Place of 
the Samaritans, containing the stones which they allege to 
have been brought up by Israel from the bed of the Jordan 
— the Valley of Shechem, the earliest setdement of Jacob 
in the Holy Land, with his Well and the Tomb of Joseph — 
Samaria, with the traditional tombs of John the Baptist and 
others, and with the extensive remains of Herod's edifices — 
the splendid Roman cities along the coast, Caesarea of 
Herod and St. Paul — Antipatris — the once renowned 
harbours of Janmia and Gaza — the mounds and other 
remains of Jiljilich, probably the Gilgal which contained the 
Great College of Prophets in the days of Elijah and Elisha 
— the Fottre£-.s and Palace of Herod at Jebel Fureidis— the 
Tombs (probably those of Joshua) at Tibneh — the mounds 
at Jericho — the numerous remains in the Valley of the 
Jordan — Bethshean, one of the most ancient cities of 
Palestine, with remarkable remains of Roman, and probably 
still earlier, date — Jezreel, the capital of Ahab and Jezebel 


— the Assyrian mound, called Tel es Salahiyeh, near 
Damascus, ci:c., &c. 

2. Manners and Customs. — A work is urgently required 
which shall do for the Holy Land what Mr. Lane's 
" Modern Egyptians " has done for Egypt — describe m a 
systematic and exhaustive order with clear and exact 
minuteness the manners, habits, rites, and language of the 
present inhabitants, with engravings intended like his " not 
to embellish the pages, but to explain the text." Many of 
the ancient and peculiar customs of Palestine are fast 
vanishing before the increasing tide of Western manners, 
and in a short time the exact meaning of many things which 
find their correspondences in the Bible will have perished. 
There are frequent references to these things in the books 
of travellers, and they have recently formed the subject 
of more than one entire work ; but nothing sufificiently 
accurate or systematic had been done, it can only be 
accomplished by the lengthened residence of a thoroughly 
competent pers(jn. 

3. Topography. — Of the coast-line of Palestine we 
now possess an accurate map in the recently finished 
Admiralty Charts. What is wanted is a Survey which when 
we advance inland should give the position of the principal 
points throughout the country with equal accuracy. If these 
were fixed, the intermediate spots and the smaller places 
could be filled in with comparative ease and certainty. In 
connection with the topography is the accurate ascertain- 
ment of the levels of the various points. The elevation of 
Jerusalem and the depression of the Dead Sea are already 
provided for by the liberality of the Royal Society and the 
Royal Geographical Society ;* but the level of the Sea 
of Galilee (on which depends our knowledge of the true 

* See Sir Henry James's letter to the Times, Jan. 28, 1865. 

B 2 


fall of the Jordan) is still uncertain within no less than 
300 feet — as are other spots of almost equal moment. 

The course of the ancient roads, and their coincidence 
witli the modern tracks, lias never been examined with the 
attention it deserves, considering its importance in the 
investigation of the history. 

The principles on which the modern territorial boundaries 
are drawn, and the towns and villages allotted between one 
district and another, would probably throw light on the 
course of boundaries between the tribes and the distribution 
of the villages, which form the most puzzling point in the 
otherwise clear specifications of the Book of Joshua. 

4. Geology. — Of this we are in ignorance of almost every 
detail. The valley of the Jordan and basin of the Dead 
Sea is geologically one of the most remarkable on the 
earth's surface. To use the words of Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison, " it is the key to the whole of the geology of the 
district." Its Biblical interest is equally great. To name 
but one point : the decision of the question whether any 
volcanic changes have occurred round the margin of the 
lake within the historical period, may throw a new aspect 
over the whole narrative of the destruction of Sodom and 

5. Natural Sciences — Botany, Zoology. Meteor- 
ology. — These are at present but very imperfectly known, 
while the recent investigations of Canon Tristram, limited as 
they necessarily were, show that researches are likely to 
furnish results of no common scientific interest. Naturalist 
after naturalist will devote himself for years to the forests of 
South America, or the rivers of Africa, why should we 
not have some of the same energy and ability applied to the 
correct description of tlie lilies and cedars, the lions, eagles, 
foxes, and ravens of the Holy Land ? 

It will perhaps be said that many of the points above 


enumerated have been already examined — that Robinson, 
Stanley, Rosen, and others have done much in the depart- 
ment of topography — that Hooker, and more recently 
Tristram, have reported on the botany — that Roth and 
Tristram have brought home shells, fish, birds, and eggs — 
that the researches of M. Lartet on the geology of the Dead 
Sea, and those of the Due de Luynes, De Vogiie, and De 
Saulcy on archaeology, are on the eve of publication. This 
is true, but without intending to detract from the usefulness 
or the credit of the labours of these eminent men, it is 
sufficient to observe that their researches have been partial 
and isolated, and their results in too many cases discrepant 
with each other. What is now proposed is an exj^edition 
composed of thoroughly competent persons in each branch 
of research, with perfect command of funds and time, 
and with all possible appliances and facilities, who should 
produce a report on Palestine which might be accepted by 
all parties as a trustworthy and thoroughly satisfactory 

It is hoped that an arrangement may be made by which 
Captain Wilson will be able to remain for a few months in the 
country after he has completed the survey of Jerusalem and 
the levelling between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea; 
and it will not be difficult to find competent persons to 
undertake the other departments named above. The 
annual cost of each investigator may be taken roughly at 
^800 (including both remuneration and expenses). 

Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to 
become the Patron of the Association, and to contribute 
to its funds. 

As will be presently seen the Society has attacked 
every one of those four divisions in turn, with the ex- 
ception of the second, which is now under consideration. 




Cromlech in Galilee. 

In the year 1865-66, the first or preHminary expe- 
dition was sent out under Captain Wilson and Lieut. 
Anderson, the results of which are detailed in chapter 
III. (see p. 38). 

In the year 1867, a great stimulus was given to the 
Society by the announcement that excavations were 
about to be made in Jerusalem, and letters were written 
to the Times by Mr. George Grove, which, backed 
by one or two leading articles, created for a short 
time very great enthusiasm. It must be remembered 
that the founders hoped to accomplish all their objects 
in a very few years, and by the expenditure of a com- 
jjarativcly small sum. With this belief the Committee 
contemplated a brief existence and began by asking 


for donations, rather than for annual subscriptions, 
so that in the first three years the comparatively- 
large sum of iJ^8,ooo, which was raised in answer to 
their appeals, consisted almost entirely of donations. 
The Queen, who became the Patron of the Society, 
gave ;^i5o; the University of Oxford ;,^5oo; the 
University of Cambridge ;^250 ; the British Asso- 
ciation ;^ 1 50 ; the Grand Lodge of Freemasons ;^ 105 ; 
the Syria Improvement Committee ^250 — this Com- 
mittee subsequently voted other large sums ; the City 
of Edinburgh sent up ;^200; Glasgow £\Ap\ Cam- 
bridge i^ioo ; and Oxford £,<^0. There were eleven 
donors of ;^I00, and a great many others in the first 
lists who gave between ^50 and ^100 each. But as 
yet there were hardly any annual subscribers. These 
had to be created when the need for them arose, 
namely, when all the money of the " first sprightly 
flow " had been spent. 

The time of great donations has never passed away, 
and scarcely a year passes but some gift of a very 
substantial kind rejoices the Committee ; but the 
Society no longer wholly depends upon them. It 
possesses now a large body of subscribers who send 
every year their half-a-guinea, guinea, two guineas, 
and sometimes more, to the Secretary. There are, at 
the present moment, about 3,500 of these. There 
have been times when there were more and no 
doubt the announcement of work recommenced in 


Jerusalem, or of Captain Conder's return to the field, 
would again, and quickly, run up the numbers. Some 
of these subscribers are old friends who have continued 
with us from the beginning, always interested in the 
work and always looking for the appearance of the 
Quarterly Statement ; others drop off year by year 
and are replaced by new subscribers ; the general 
depression of trade and the bad times have forced 
some reluctantly to retire, while others send up their 
contributions only when a party is in the field, in a 
belief, which it seems impossible to destroy, that when 
an expedition has once come home with the note- 
books full, no more money is wanted. Some, again, 
arc interested more in one branch of inquiry than in 
another. Some continually urge the Committee to 
resume excavation work in Jerusalem, while others 
are eager for the completion of the Survey. It is, 
however, to this great body of annual subscribers that 
the Committee have chiefly looked for the last eighteen 
years for the funds wherewith to prosecute the work, 
and it will always be their endeavour and hope to be 
constantly enlisting new members, and extending the 
area covered by their members. It is certainly better, 
in the interests of extended knowledge and of Biblical 
research, to have ten annual subscribers of a guinea 
each than one donor of ten guineas, and the lecturers 
and advocates of the Society no longer ask so much 
for special donations as for annual subscribers. At 


the same time, donations are always most acceptable. 
The machinery by which the Committee look most 
for extension and support is by the help of their local 
secretaries, by their lecturers, by their publications, 
and by means of the press. The money spent in 
advertising is a very small annual item. 

To return, however, to the early years. 

In the year 1868 it was found absolutely necessary, 
although Mr. Grove had been joined in his office as 
hon. secretary by the Rev. F. W. Holland as coad- 
jutor, to have an office for head-quarters and as a 
place where information could be had and the papers 
and circulars of the Society seen, and a secretary 
who should receive visitors, explain the nature and 
results of the work, conduct the correspondence and 
carry on the regular daily business of the Society. 
Mr, Walter Besant, M.A., was, in July, 1868, appointed 
secretary, and has ever since continued to hold the 

In March, 1869, it was resolved to give the reports 
and letters of the exploring officers a more permanent 
shape by issuing them once a quarter, and sending 
them round to all subscribers. Before this a few 
copies only had been printed, as the letters came 
home, and these were sent round to such of the 
subscribers — a small selected list — as it was thought 
would be interested in them. Many of them, there- 
fore, were not aware of what was being done. In this 


way was first established the Quarterly Statement. 
It beL,ran with an issue of 500 copies, and the first 
number contained, besides Warren's letter and a 
resianc of work prepared b}^ the secretary, only a 
reprint of two articles, one by Mr. John Macgregor 
from the Times, and one b}' Lieut. Warren from the 
AtJieiiceiim. This Journal is now the recogniseci 
organ for all papers on Palestine research, and 
penetrates into all parts of the world where the 
Bible is studied. Its circulation naturally varies 
with the number of the subscribers. At the present 
moment it is less than 3,000, though in some )-ears it 
has gone up to as many as 5,000. Considering that 
it addresses none but such as are serious students of 
the geography, history, and archaeology of Bible 
lands, this circulation may be considered very fair. 
It has published, among its seventeen volumes, 
an invaluable collection of papers on all subjects 
connected with the Society's operations. Most of 
the important matter up to the year 1882 has been 
transferred from its pages to the Memoirs of the 
Survey of Western Palestine, yet those who have kept 
the early numbers and have a complete collection 
may take note that an unbroken set is fast becoming 
very valuable. The Journal contains, in addition to 
the reports and letters of the officers, a great number 
of papers on various subjects, discussions on sites, 
notes of journeys and independent research. Nearly 


all these papers have been given to the Committee. 
During the seventeen and a-half years of its existence, 
the Journal has cost little more than ;^50 altogether 
to writers for contributed papers. The whole of the 
rest has been contributed voluntarily, and for nothing, 
to the Committee. 

It is sometimes urged that it is desirable to make 
the Quarterly Statement more attractive, and no doubt 
larger type and thicker paper would make it look 
better, but the postal expense would be doubled or 
trebled — a serious consideration when the distribution 
is done altogether through the post. As it is, the 
postage of their Journal costs the Committee from 
£60 to ;^ 1 00 a year. To multiply this cost by three, 
which larger type and thicker paper would necessitate, 
would oblige them to retrench in the matter of illus- 
trations and maps, in which it must be owned that 
the periodical has always been most generous and 
liberal. Some of the papers published are, it is again 
complained, dry. It may be replied, however, that it 
is difficult to make meteorological tables and returns, 
the hard facts of latitudes, longitudes, aneroid heights, 
angles, distances, and contours, what is generally 
called light reading. Yet these things, when they 
have been ascertained, must be published, otherwise 
they might just as well never have been searched for, 
and moreover, it must be remembered that they 
cease to be dry when they are applied to the objects 


for which they were investigated. 'Jhus, to take a 
single instance, it is doubtless a dry fact, by itself, 
to read that Captain Condcr has discovered the long- 
lost city, Kadesh of the Hittites. ]^ut the fact is 
anything but dry when it is accompanied and 
explained by the narrative of the way in which this 
fact was arrived at, the history which it illustrates, 
the Egyptian campaign in which the city figures, and 
the knowledge that it has been rediscovered from 
the information conveyed in an Egyptian monument 
3,000 years old. Further, it is no longer a mere dry 
fact when we consider that this place belonged to a 
very remarkable people, the extent of whose country 
as well as the site of their sacred city have only 
recently been discovered, whose inscriptions, only 
recently brought to light, still await decipherment, 
and whose story is gradually being wrested from 
the records of the past. Our Quarterly Statement 
is full of such instances — chiefly contributed by 
Captain Conder, who, if he had his note book in one 
hand, generally had the Book of Joshua in the other, 
and never laid down a newly found name, a newly 
discovered ruin, on his map, without inquiring what 
connection, if any, it might have with the sacred 
narrative. A few of his conclusions, arrived at on the 
field, may have been abandoned on more careful in- 
vestigation; most of them, however, have held their 
ground, and met with general acceptance. Those 


who have for fifteen years followed those voluminous 
letters, reports, and papers from him, which sometimes 
nearly filled the Quarterly Statement, will remember 
not only the brightness and vividness of his style, the 
picturesqueness and colour of his descriptions, the 
happy touches by which continually the country and 
its people seem to stand forth revealed to the readers 
who have never visited the land, but also the unex- 
pected snatch of some old site out of a pile of names, 
the quick instinct which told him that some old ruin 
consisting of nothing but broken cisterns, foundations 
nardly to be traced, and fragments of broken pottery, 
was a Biblical site which had long been wanted to fit 
into its place for the determination of a tribe boundary, 
or was some long lost historical city filled with sacred 
and classical associations. 

The first offices of the Society in Pall Mall East 
were retained until the year 1877, when the Fund was 
turned out in order to make room for an enlargement 
of business premises ; an office was then found at 
Charing Cross, but this was soon discovered to be 
too small for the wants of the Society, and in the 
year 1880 another move was made to Adam Street, 
Adelphi, where the Fund is now established. 

In the year 1879 it was judged prudent, the Asso- 
ciation having now become possessed of a considerable 
amount of property, to convert it into a Limited 
Liability Company, under the Acts provided, with 


power to trade, but not for profit of the managers. 

This was done without altering the management in 

the least. There are seven or eight nominal share- 

lioldcrs, the former manner of government is 

continued, and the Society has all the protection 

afforded by the law, which enables it to defend, if 

necessary, its copyright in books and maps and its 

property in collections and objects of art. 

Other domestic history there is little. Of the 

original Executive Committee first elected on April 

1 8, 1866, two alone remain, Mr, Walter Morrison, 

who has been the hon. treasurer for the Fund since 

July, 1867, first with Mr. John Abel Smith and then 

Mr. Culling Hanbury, and since his death, alone ; and 

Sir George Grove, the first hon. secretary. 

oi,. .. , In the year 1870 the Committee 
Publications of ■' ' 

the Society, published a book, edited by Mr. Walter 
Morrison, called the " Recovery of Jerusalem," in 
which, among other papers, Captain Warren gave 
an account of his excavations. Abcnit two thousand 
copies of this work were sold by the Society's 
publishers, Messrs. Bcntley and Son. This was 
followed by a more popular book called " Our Work 
in Palestine," written by the secretary for the Com- 
mittee, in which were set forth not only the nature of 
the excavations, but also their meaning, and the chief 
arguments in the controversy of the sites. Of this 
book, now out of print, nine thousand copies were sold. 


After the completion of the survey, Captain Conder 
wrote a popular account of its methods and general 
results called " Tent Work in Palestine." This book 
was very well received. It passed from a library to a 
cheap edition, of which the second thousand has 
lately been called for. It promises, and deserves, to 
remain a popular and standard work on the Holy 
Land. On his return from the interrupted eastern 
survey, Captain Conder wrote another book called 
" Heth and Moab." In this work, which has also 
passed into a cheap edition, the author relates the 
story of his discovery of the Hittite Kadesh, and of 
his raid into the eastern country. 

In the years 1881-85 the Committee published, for a 
limited number of subscribers, their great work called 
the " Survey of Western Palestine." This work is by 
far the most important they have as yet issued ; it is, 
in fact, the most important zvork {not excepting even 
Robinson's) on the Holy Land that has ever been given 
to the luorld ; and the most importajit contribution to 
the illustration of the Bible since its translation into the 
vulgar tongue. It contains : — 

I. The Memoirs : with all the drawings, plans, 
sketches and notes made by the officers, 
supplemented by such other information as 
could be got from other recent travellers {e.g. 
under the word " Tyre " will be found a short 
history of the city, with an account of Rcnan's 


excavations, and, in an appendix, Captain 
Condor's later researches). These volumes 
arc illustrated by thousands of drawings, 
plans, maps, and sketches of ruins, tombs, 
&c., made by Captain Conder and Captain 
Kitchener expressly for the work. 

2. The Name Lists : containing over 10,000 

names collected during the Survey. These 
were transliterated by Captain Conder, and 
translated by the late Prof Palmer. 

3. Special Papers : being a reproduction of 

papers which have already appeared in the 
Quarterly Statement. 

4. Flora and Fauna of Palestine: with illustrations, 

hand-coloured, by Rev. Canon Tristram. 

5. Jerusalem. An account of all that has been 

done in the city in excavation and research, 
from 1865 to 1882, by Major-Gen. Sir Charles 
Warren, G.C.B., F.R.S., R.E., and Captain 
Conder, R.E., together with a portfolio of 60 
sheets of plans and drawings. 

6. To these volumes has been recently added 

Prof Hull's "Geology of Palestine," a scien- 
tific memoir embodying his observations and 
discoveries during his expedition in 1884-85. 
At the same time, and forming part of the same 
work, were produced the maps issued by the Com- 
mittee, namely : the Great ]\Iap of Western Pales- 


tine in 26 sheets ; the Reduced Map in six sheets ; 
the same with the Water Basins laid down ; the 
Old Testament Map of Western Palestine, and the 
New Testament Map. As regards the two latter 
they will shortly be withdrawn and replaced by 
others showing both sides of the Jordan, including 
so much of the Eastern survey as is yet completed ; 
the tribe boundaries and identifications will be 
superintended by Sir Charles Wilson and Captain 

The whole of this work has been produced in a 
manner worthy of its contents, every drawing that 
the officers gave in has been published, with every 
note of their memoirs. The maps are in the best 
style, the reduced map being engraved on copper. 
The cost of the whole work, including everything, has 
been no less than ^10,971. Of this large sum, ^^7,301 
has been received from the subscribers to the whole 
work, and by sale of the maps separately, and when 
the remaining copies are taken up and the maps 
have been before the public a little longer, there will 
certainly be no loss to record at all. 

In the year 1885 was published Prof Hull's 
popular account of the geological expedition, in a 
volume called " Mount Seir." 

The MSS. in the hands of the Committee and 
awaiting publication will be spoken of presently. 

Other books, published on kindred topics, though 


not issued by the Society, must also be noted, as 
showing the increased activity and interest in the 
subject. Among them are Warren's " Underground 
Jerusalem," and his " Temple or the Tomb " ; Palmer's 
" Desert of the Exodus " ; Tristram's " Land of 
Moab " ; Ginsburg's " Moabite Stone " ; Sir Richard 
Burton's " Unexplored Syria " ; Fergusson's " Tem- 
ples of the Jews " ; Condcr's " Handbook to the 
Bible," and his primer of '"Bible Geography" ; Besant 
and Palmer's " History of Jerusalem " ; Lady Burton's 
" Inner Life of Syria"; Laurence Oliphant's "Land 
of Gilead"; Merrill's "Eastern Palestine"; Dr. 
Clay Trumbull's " Kadesh Barnea " ; Conder's " Judas 
Maccabaeus " ; Wright's " Empire of the Hittites" ; 
Drake's " Life and Literary Remains ; " the " Trans- 
actions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology " ; the 
books of the Societe de I'Orient Latin ; Tobler's 
learned works ; the " Records of the Past " ; the 
publications of the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society ; 
the Transactions of the American, German, and 
Russian Palestine Societies ; and many others. 

- It is impossible to estimate by any 

Exploration, money standard the value of the Society's 
work, for so far, and so far only, as it is solid and 
true, is it valuable, and all that in it is solid and 
true is unspeakably valuable. 

The whole amount of money received by the 



Society from June, 1865 to December 31st, 1885, has 
been as follows : — 

From subscriptions and don; 

Proceeds of lectures 

Proceeds of publications 

Legacies ... 

Maps and memoirs* 


;^66,38o 17 

And the expenditure has been as follows : — 
On exploration ... ... ... ^35,o8i 19 

)ns , 


















Returned to subscribers in pub- 


.. 8,224 



Maps and memoirs* 

.. 10,971 




.. 11,424 


Expended on exhibitionsf 




Balance ... 




;^66,38o 17 4 

In other words, out of a total expenditure of 
;^66,049 i^-^- 3^- spread over 21 years, the Committee 
have spent : — 

On exploration ... ... 53 per cent. 

* This includes the money spent and received on account of the 
" Survey of Western Palestine," the memoir!: with their ilkistrations, 
the maps, and ail tlie charges belonging to the publication of them. 

t The Society has held two Exhibitions in London and one in 

C 2 


On management ... ... 17 per cent. 

Returned to subscribers in 

form of printed matter ... 13 per cent, 
and on maps and memoirs, two-thirds of which have 
already been recovered by sales, while all the rest will 
also be recovered, a proportion of 17 per cent. 

The present assets of the Society are ( i ) the balance 
at the bank amounting to a few hundreds ; (2) its 
books, copyrights, photographs and maps ; (3) its 
collections now at South Kensington, and (4) its 
library, collections and furniture at the central office. 
The liabilities are a current printer's bill of about 
^400, and a debt of ;i^850 for an unpaid loan. 

The collections could, if necessary, be sold for a 
very large sum of money. They include sarcophagi, 
ancient lamps, inscriptions, Jewish pottery, carvings, 
capitals, coins, objects of all kinds found in the ex- 
cavations, models of Jerusalem and Sinai, collections 
of birds, and many other things. It is not in- 
tended, however, either to sell or to disperse this 
unique and valuable museum, but to keep the things 
together, and to make them the nucleus of the 
great Biblical Museum which the Society proposes 
to form. 

The present General Committee of a hundred and 
thirty gentlemen includes in its list, it is gratifying 
to state, all the survivors of the original members. 
In the whole twenty-one years' history of the 


Society there has been recorded but one secession 
from the Committee: that of a member who withdrew 
his name, but without assigning any reason. The 
chairman of the Executive Committee, which meets 
twice every m.onth, and oftener if necessary, is 
Mr. James Glaisher, F.R.S., and every information 
may be obtained, and the publications seen at the 
Society's offices, i, Adam Street, Adelphi. 




On base of column, Nebratein, 

The first expedition sent out by the Committee 
was in November, 1865, under Captain C. W. (now 
Col. Sir Charles) Wilson, R.E., who was accompanied 
by Lieut. Anderson, R.E. The general objects 
of the expedition were to fix, in particular, spots for 
further investigation, and to collect whatever infor- 
mation might be possible which would throw light 
on any of the points mentioned in the original 
prospectus of the Society, The expedition was in 
the field from December, 1865, to May, 1866, The 
following is the report of the work done, drawn up, 
from Captain Wilson's letters, by a sub-committee, 
appointed for the purpose, consisting of the Arch- 

nmmMn v)i}i)?>Hffn> }„>f)„tT ^ 


bishop of York, the Dean of Westminster, and 
Professor Owen : — 

1. Topography. — By accurate observations for time and 
latitude, made at forty-nine separate points between 
Beyrout and Hebron, and by a hne of azimuths carried 
through the country from Banias to Jerusalem, a series of 
detailed maps has been formed, on the scale of one mile to 
an inch (the scale of the English Ordnance Survey), of the 
whole backbone of the country, from north to south, 
including the lake of Genesareth and all the watercourses 
descending to its western shores. 

^ i „ » Two debated questions have been 


PLAN OF CHURCH definitely settled: the confluence of 
the Jabbok (Wady Zerka) with the 
Jordan, and the course of the Wady 
Surar. The nature of the country, 
especially in the south, is very un- 
favourable for rapid reconnaissance, as 
the numerous watercourses are so narrow, and have such 
tortuous courses, that it is unsafe to trust the eye, and lay 
anything down that has not actually been visited. Most 
of the errors in the existing maps seem to have arisen in 
this way. To remedy this defect has been the aim of 
the present map, and must be the aim of any additions 
to it hereafter. 

2. Archeology. — Materials have been collected for making 
about fifty plans, with detailed drawings, of churches, syna- 
gogues, mosques, temples, tombs, tScc, amongst which are 
the plans of the cities of Beisan, Sebastiyeh, and Coesarea ; 
of the Holy Place of the Samaritans, and the ruined 
Church of Justinian, on the summit of Mount Gerizim ; 
of ancient churches at Baalbek, Yarun, Sebastiyeh, Beitin, 
Bireh, Cssarea, I.ydda, Beit Jibrin, Kuryet-el-Enab, and 
Jerusalem ; of seven Jewish synagogues ; of the Grand 

a □ □ B 

o o □ a □ 


O ro ^O 30 »0 SOfCLT 



Mosque at Damascus, of a mosque at Nablus ; of Temples 
at Deirel-Kalah, Mejdel-Anjar, and Kedes, and of numerous 
tombs in various ])art^ r^'i the country. 

Columbaria near Beit Jibrin 

Inscriptions were found and 
copied at the Nahr el-Kelb, Uer 
el-Kalah, Masi, Damascus, Tel 

M E 1 r6n 


Salhiyeh, Harran, el-Awamid, (^p^-nL 
Banias, Kedes, Yarun, Nehratein, ■' ' ■■■■■ v ^ 
Kefr Birim, Kasyun, and Nablus; J: 
several of these are new, two of 
them in the Hebrew character, 
and others in the Samaritan. 
Sfjueezes were taken of the most 




^■ r -*^ 


important, including the tablets of Sennacherib at Nahr 




el-Kelb. The Hebrew and Samaritan inscriptions have been 
referred to Mr. Deutsch, of the British Museum, who has 
kindly undertaken to report upon their contents, age, &c. 

The most mteresting remains are 
those of the ancient synagogues at 
Tel Hum, Irbid, Kefr Birim, &c. 
To these attention has been called 
by Dr. Robinson m his " Later 
Biblical Researches." But the 
present expedition has furnished 
the first complete account of their 
arrangement and construction. 
They all lie north and south, have 
three gateways in the southern end, 



the interior divided into five aisles 
by four rows of columns, and the 

two northern corners formed by 4,1/^6! HAOJAlOH AN in 
double engaged columns. The OYKTCOPAA'HT-HCAICI 
style of decoration does not always MAXOlOrONOC 

appear to have been the same. At From iJanias. 

Tel Hum (the strongest claimant for the '^ite of Caper- 
naum) and Kerazeh (Chorazin) Corinthian svmagogue at 
capitals were found ; at Irbid a mixture of 
Corinthian and Ionic ; whilst Kefr Birim, 
Meiron, and Um el-Amud have capitals 
of a peculiar character. The faces of the 
lintels over the gateways are usually orna- 
mented with some device ; at Nebratein 
there is an inscription and representation 
of the seven-branched candlestick ; at Kefr 
Birim the ornament appears to have been intended for 
the Paschal lamb ; and at Tel Hum there are the 
pot of manna and lamb. A scroll of vine leaves with 
bunches of grapes is one of the most frequent ornaments. 


□ Q c: Q 
Q ,:. li 
B r; ::■ Q 

c i;i 

O 10 to 30 *0 XfCCl 



The position of Choraziii at Kerazeh, a couple of miles 
north of Tel Hum — which had been indicated by the Rev. 


From Nebratein 


From Kerazeh, 

G. Williams, in 1842 — now seems to be fixed with tolerable 
certainty, by the presence of extensive remains, including 
those of a synagogue. 



The ancient system of irrigating the plain of Genesareth 
can still be traced, and may help to throw light on the site 

of Capernaum. From the streams which descend the three 
Wadys of Hammam, Rubadiyeh and Amud, water was 
carried to the right and left by small aqueducts, and beyond 
these towards the north-east the plain was watered by the 


spring of Tabighah. The Round Fountain seems to have 
irrigated a comparatively small extent of ground between 
Wady Rubadiyeh and Wady Hani mam, the aqueducts from 
both of which can be traced nearly up to their sources, the 
latter one being still in use. By carefully using the water 
derived from these sources the entire plain was perfectly 
irrigated, and from the richness of its soil must have been ot 
great fertility. Neither Ain et-Tin nor the Round Fountain 
answer to the account given by Josephus of the Fountain of 
Kepharnome ; they are too small, and hardly come into 
the scheme of irrigation — the former not at all ; but, 
supposing it to be Ain Tabighah, his allusion is at once 
explained by the copiousness of the supply, and the 
excavated channel through the rock above Khan Minyeh, 
by which tlie water was carried into the plain ; the 
fertilizing powers of the fountain are still attended by the 
rank vegetation around the mills, more noticeable there 
than at any other point of the lake. 

Near the mouth of Wady Semakh, on the eastern shore 
of the lake, some ruins called Khersa were visited, possibly 
those of the ancient Gergasa, and between this and Wady 
Fik (opposite Tiberias) appears to have been the scene of 
the destruction of the herd of swine ; indeed no other point 
on that side of the lake is so suitable. From the eastern 
plateau the ground slopes steeply, in a few places almost 
])recipiiously, down to the level of the lake, leaving a 
margin of fertile land from half a mile to a mile broad 
between the base of the hills and the water ; but at this 
particular point, and only at this, a spur runs out to the 
shore, there is no " cliff," but a slope sufficiently steep to 
fulfil the requirements of the Bible narrative. 

Excavations were made in three places in the mound of 
Tel Salhiyeh, apparently an Assyrian monument, near 
Damascus, during wliich the sculjjtural slab mentioned in 


Porter's " Five Years in Damascus " was re-discovered. 
Owing to the badness of the weather it was not advisable to 
persevere with the exploration at that time ; but it has been 
since resumed by Mr. Rogers, Her Majesty's Consul at 
Damascus, to whom a sum oi j(^^o has been voted by the 
Committee for that special object. 

Besides determining the general form of the authentic 
synagogues, the excavations made at Kedes confirm the 
conjecture that the supposed synagogue there was a Greek 
temple, of about the same age as those at Baalbek. At 
Jerusalem, the gate Gennath, so-called, was found to be of 
comparatively modern construction ; and the continuation 
of the passage from the Bab el-Burak of the Haram, was 
discovered ; the vault is of massive, well-built masonry, and 
there seems no reason to doubt that it is one of the original 
entrances to the Herodian Temple. 

On Mount Gerizim numerous excavations were made, 
under the direction of Lieutenant Anderson. Within the 
ruin known as the " Castle," the foundations of an octagonal 
church were laid bare, probably the one known to have 
been built there by Justinian. On the eastern side of 
the church is an apse, on the northern side the main 
entrance, and on each of the others doors leading to small 
side chapels. In the interior are the piers of a smaller 
octagon, apparently intended to carry a dome. The church 
and castle were found to be built on a rough platform of 
large stones laid together without mortar, and of this — ■ 
which may possibly be that on which the Samaritan Temple 
stood — the so-called " twelve stones " form a portion. No 
trace of large foundations could be found on the southern 
portion of the small plateau on which the castle stands. 
Close to the Holy Rock of the Samaritans a number ot 
human remains were dug up, but no clue could be obtained 
to their age or nationality. 



3. Photographs. — A series of photographs (9x6), 166 in 
number, have been taken, the majority for the first time. 
They comprise views of sites, details of architecture, inscrip- 



tions, &c., the Samaritan Pentateuch, and a few natural 

The most important feature of this expedition has 
proved to be the examination of the synagogues, and 
especially the synagogue of Tel Hum. The "two 
debated questions " which were then settled are illus- 
trative of the then condition of Palestine geography. 
If such a question or any other were now to arise 
in considering a passage of the Bible the Great 
Survey Map would at once settle the matter just as a 
reference to a dictionary settles the spelling of a 
word. But so rich a harvest of work from so short an 
expedition was wholly unexpected and was received 
with great satisfaction. 

A fuller paper on the Synagogues 
of Galilee, was written by Captain 
Wilson, and published originally in 
the second number of the Quarterly 
Statement^ in the year 1869. It 
was republished with a paper by 
Captain Kitchener, in the volume of the " Survey of 
Western Palestine," called " Special Papers." 


o a a C3 D a 

O 10 ^O 30 ^O 5VF€£r 




It was in IMaj', 1867, that Lieutenant Warren, R.F.., 
left England, charged with the duty of conducting 
excava<-ions at Jerusalem, in the hope of settling once 


for all the controversies on the Holy sites. The 
questions under dispute were chiefly these : — 

1. The site of the Temple within the walls of the 

enclosure, known as the Haram esh Sherif. 

2. The site of Constantine's Church of the 

Anastasis, with which was involved the site, 
true and traditional, of the Holy Sepulchre. 

3. The course of the First, Second, and Third 

Wall, which involved the site of the towers 
of Hippicus, Phasaelus, Mariamne, and 
Psephinus. The course of the Second Wall 
is also closely connected with the site of the 
Holy Sepulchre. 
" 4. The Gates of the Walls. 

5. The date of the erection of the Dome of the 


6. The position of the tower of Antonia, the Gate 

Beautiful, the course of the Tyropoeon valley, 
Millo, Acra, the Pool of Bethesda, the Gate 
Gennath, and many other places. 
As regards the controversialists, they have been 
so numerous that at least as many as sixteen dif- 
ferent reconstructions of the ancient city have been 
proposed. Robinson, who began first to doubt 
the traditional sites, argued that the Second Wail 
must have included the present Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, which, therefore, could not be built 

on the true site. Fergusson, who first advanced 



his theories in the }'ear 1847, and subsequently was 
permitted to ad\ocate them in "Smith's Dictionary of 
the Bible," in 1865, contended that the Dome of the 
Rock in the Temple enclosure is nothing else than 
Constantine's Basilica, that the cave which it covers is 
the Holy Sepulchre itself, that the present traditional 
site was fraudulently assumed by the monks, in order 
to keep up the flow of pilgrims; and that the Temple 
itself was built in the south-west corner of the Haram 
Area. He was followed in the main, though not 
altogether, by Lewin, Thrupp, and others, while his 
principal opponents were at that time Prof. Willis, 
George Williams, and Finlay. 

The arguments used for and against the various 
theories were based upon the following authorities : — 

1. The topographical references scattered about 

in the Bible. 

2. The descriptions of Josephus. 

3. The Rabbinical writings. 

4. The notices of the city found in other ancient 

authors, and especially those of the early 
Christian writers, such as Jerome, Eusebius, 
Cyril, and Origen. 

5. Ecclesiastical history. 

6. The travels of early pilgrims. 

7. The lie of the ground. 

8. The architectural evidence. 
<). Tradition. 


As regards the first six sources of information, the 
writers of 1865 were in just as good a position as those 
of the present year, except in one or two particulars. 
Thus, the list of early pilgrims has been increased by 
the discovery of another MS. or two, and a better 
text is now accessible. There was not, probably, living 
then, nor is there living now, any one man, if we may 
except Dr. Robinson, who had gone through the long 
collection of Byzantine writings in order to extract 
the references to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, 
though Williams quotes a few passages — he does 
not say whether he found them himself — from 
Cedrenus and others. No one then — again excepting 
Robinson — had systematically read and examined 
the early Arabic travellers and historians, though 
quotations were made by Williams in his " Holy 
City" from one or two and those at second hand. 
This work has now been undertaken by the Palestine 
Pilgrims' Text Society, a branch of the Fund. 
Twenty years ago it was customary to sneer at 
the exaggerations of Josephus. Recent dis- 
coveries have, however, proved that in some 
cases at least he is very near the truth. And 
there was so general a disposition to decry the 
weight of Rabbinical authority, that, in the Jeru- 
salem article of Smith's Bible Dictionary, it is 
laid down as a general proposition that the autho- 
rity of the Rabbis " is so questionable that it is of 

D 2 


the least possible consequence what they said or 
meant." It is now, however, admitted, and has 
been proved in a very remarkable paper lately 
published in the Journal of the Society, that the state- 
ments of the Rabbis, so far from being of no con- 
sequence, are valuable and important to the highest 

Next, as regards the lie of the ground. That was 
everywhere unknown. Wilson in his tentative exca- 
vations had clearly proved that the modern city stands 
upon many feet of rubbish : George Williams speaks 
of twenty feet of rubbish : the original Prospectus 
speaks of sixty feet : and everybody knew that there 
were vast quantities of debris lying outside the city 
walls, but no one knew the depth of this rubbish. 
The course of the Tyropoeon valley, on which the 
course of the Second Wall depends, was unknown, 
while Fergusson, in his Jerusalem article, states 
positively, as if it was a well-known and indisputable 
fact, that all along the south wall of the Temple the 
rock Avas everywhere visible ; the truth, as now 
known, being that it is visible at one point only, 
being buried a hundred feet deep at the two 
extremities — east and west. Also in placing the 
Temple in the south-west corner of the Haram Area, 
Fergusson, thinking that it was a level area, placed it 
upon a slope of one in five, unless, as has been con- 
jectured, a cliff existed at this spot. 


As regards the architectural argument, Fergusson's 
theory may be thus briefly stated : — 

1. The architecture of the Dome of the Rock is 

Byzantine, and is of the time of Constantine, 

2. Therefore it must be the BasiHca of the 


3. Therefore it covers the true site of the Holy 

Sepulchre, and therefore the present tradi- 
tional site must be a forgery of the monks. 

4. Therefore this spot must have been within 

the walls of the city, 

5. Therefore the Temple must necessarily have 

been in the south-west corner, because there 
is no other place in which to put it. 

6. Therefore the present east wall of the Haram 

must have been part of the Third Wall of 

the City. 
De Vogiie, on the other hand, declared his opinion 
that the Dome of the Rock was really and truly built, 
as all the Arab historians agree in stating, and the 
inscription within it declares, by Abd el Melek ; but 
that it was constructed for him by Byzantine architects, 
the Arabs themselves being incapable of any archi- 
tecture. De Vogiie was supported in this opinion by 
the late Professor Willis, an architectural authority of 
the highest rank. It remains to be seen what view 
will be taken of the subject by future writers. 

As for the value of tradition, there are some who 



place the highest value on tradition when it seems to 
be uninterrupted. Now the site fixed upon by Constan- 
tine's advisers, as that of the Holy Sepulchre, does 
seem, to many of those who have examined into the 
question, determined by an unbroken catena of evi- 
dence extending from the middle of the fourth century 
until the present day. Unfortunately, however, there 
is not a single whisper of tradition concerning that 
site before the fourth century. 

Captain Conder, however, has laid down an axiom 
on tradition, the value of which was not recognised 
twenty years ago. It is this, that tuhen the traditions 
of Jezv, Cliristimi, and Moslem unite there is strong 
presumption for believing that they are right. 

No one doubts, for 
instance, the site of 
Hebron, Rachel's 

Tomb, and Jacob's Well, 
while only the Greek 
Christians believe in the 
yearly miracle of the 
Holy Fire, and the hun- 
dred and one legends 
with which they have 
surrounded the Holy places, 

Warren's excavations were continued from February, 
1867 till April, 1870, a period of about three years. 
Since the year 1870 a good deal of work has been 


done by Captain Conder, M. Clermont Ganneau, Herr 
Conrad Schick, Herr Guthe (for the German Society), 
Dr. Chaplin, and the Russians. The whole of this 
work has now been summarized and arranged by 
Sir Charles Warren and Captain Conder, and pub- 
lished in the volume entitled "Jerusalem," forming 
part of the great work, " The Survey of Western 
Palestine." This book is a great deal more than a 
description of the excavations ; it is the most com- 
prehensive and complete work on the Holy City 
ever published ; it contains a chronological synopsis 
of the history of the city ; an account of all its 
architectural monuments, with the earliest accounts 
of the buildings, a statement of the controversy con- 
cerning the disputed sites ; and a complete account 
of the excavations and their results, with all the 
work that has been carried on in the city since 
Warren's time. The volume is accompanied by a 
portfolio containing sixty sheets of drawings and 
plans most of which have never before appeared. It 
is impossible here to do more than recapitulate the 
principal results of excavations which are without 
parallel for the difficulties presented, and the courage 
displayed in overcoming them. 

As regards the walls of the Temple Area, Warren 
proved that this colossal work is covered up with 
di'brts in some places to a depth of 100 feet, and 
in one place to a depth of 125 feet below the present 



surface of the ground. The foundations were laid 
bare, by means of deep shafts sunk through the 
ddbris, and it was proved that the stones had been 
lowered into their places, ready dressed ; that the 
dressing of the stones is not uniform, for in some 
parts they present a rough face with a marginal draft. 
And in others a smooth face also with a marginal di*aft. 
The corner stones are from 14 to 15 feet in length. 

riiiiracters in Lowest Stones-, S.E. wall. 



Inscribed Jar Handles. 

and from 3| to 4^ feet in height ; in some of those 
at the S.E. angle Phoenician characters were found 
— ^jar handles were also found here with Phoenician 
characters which are variously interpreted ; the arch 
called Robinson's arch was proved to have been the 
last of a series of arches leading to the Temple from 
the Upper City, the voussoirs of two arches, one con- 
structed after the other had fallen in, were lying buried 
in the ground beneath it. Excavations were also made 
at Wilson's arch higher up on the same side of the 
wall and disclosed a series of rock-cut chambers, the 
purpose of which is unknown, with a broad subter- 
ranean passage evidently designed for the secret pas- 
sage of troops from the citadel to the Temple in case 
of need. A single course of great stones was found to 
run from the south-east angle to the Double Gate ; and 
the so-called Solomon's Stables were proved to be a 



comparatively modern re-construction. The alleged 
great wall 600 feet from the south-west angle {see 
Smith's "Dictionary of the Bible," art. Jerusalem) was 
proved to have no existence. The wall of Ophel was 

Gallery near E. wall. 

found and traced for a long distance. An aqueduct was 
found on the west side older than the portion of the wall 
at the south-west angle; the Tyropoeon valley was 
followed up, and rock levels have been obtained showing 


the contour of the whole city except at one point, 
namely, that within the south-west front of the Haram 
Area, concerning which there is still some uncertainty. 
These points have been enumerated because they bear 
specially on the problem of the site of the Temple, 
The conclusions drawn from the facts by Sir Charles 
Warren are that the oldest portion of the wall is the 
south-east part and the south as far as the Double 
Gate; that Solomon's palace stood in the south-east, 
and that the south-west was built by Herod; and that 
the Temple stood in the middle ; where, in fact, 
Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan tradition all unite 
in placing it. 

Since these excavations many curious and valuable 
discoveries and observations have been made. Thus, 
the capitals in the Dome of the Rock have been 
accurately sketched, the Kalat Jalud and the Tower of 
David have been examined. The First Wall on the 
south of Mount Zion has been discovered and traced 
by Henry Maudslay, C.E. ; the existence of ancient 
tombs below the church of the Holy Sepulchre has 
been proved and the tombs planned, and the whole of 
the country round the city has been carefully explored 
and described. 

New things arc continually being found in 
Jerusalem, e.g., the ancient wall discovered this very 
year, which may very likely turn out to be the Second 
Wall ; new discoveries connected with the old walls 



with the Temple, and with the various occupiers (jf 
the city, but it is certain that nothinf:^ will ever be 


'■ # 

11!"' "1 



Cnpitals supporting the Dome of the Rock. 

done in the future to compare with what was done by 
Warren. Before he dug there, the ancient city was 
measured by the modern the *' sleepy little Jcbusitc 



Lamps fouml in the Excavaiiuns. 


town," as it has been called. The proud words of 
Joscphus, the passionate love of the Jews for their city, 
and their praise of its ancient glories, seemed exag- 
gerated and absurd in presence of those grey walls 
and those narrow limits. It was Warren who restored 
the ancient city to the world ; he it was who stripped 
the rubbish from the rocks, and showed the glorious 
Temple standing within its walls, i,ooo feet long and 
200 feet high, of mighty masonry ; he it was who laid 
open the valleys now covered up and hidden ; he who 
opened the secret passages, the ancient aqueducts, the 
bridge connecting temple and town. Whatever else 
may be done in the future, his name will always be 
associated with the Holy City which he first recovered. 
Many questions, it is true, still remain unanswered, 
many gaps in our knowledge have to be filled up, but, 
in the main features, those who have followed Warren 
and Conder in their statement of facts and their 
conclusions, and who agree with them, have no longer 
any doubt as to the position of the Temple, and the 
real builders of the Kubbet es Sakhra, 

As regards the true and actual site of the Holy 
Sepulchre there are four schools. 

I. Those who believe that the site fixed on for 
the buildings of Constantino was the true 
site, well known to and remembered by 
Christians from the very beginning, and that 
it is the site now shown. 


2. Those who think, with Fergusson, that Con- 

stantine's site was that now covered by 
the Dome of the Rock, and that it was 
the true one, well known to Christians of 
his time. 

3. Those who think that Constantine's site is that 

now called the Holy Sepulchre, but that in 
his time the Christians knew no more about 
the real site than we ourselves know, 

4. Those who believe that the true site is that 

proposed by Captain Conder, outside the 
present walls. 
If the Second Wall be proved to include the present 
church, then the first school are for ever silenced, and 
the present traditional sites are forever abolished. If 
Warren, Conder, Palmer, and others who believe the 
Dome of the Rock to have been built by Abd el Meiek 
be right, then the second school is silenced. Of the third 
opinion, nothing need here be said, except that it is 
undoubtedly certain that no reference whatever is 
made to the site of the Holy Sepulchre before the time 
of Eusebius, although Christians were, much earlier 
than this time, in the habit of making pilgrimages to 
the site of the Ascension. As to the fourth opinion, 
Conder's suggestions may be read in the Quarterly 
Statement. If they do not carry conviction they 
make out a very strong case for the position of the 
Tomb in the immediate vicinity to that proposed. 




In the year 1870 an examination was made of a part 
of the Desert of the Tih which had often been crossed 
but never explored. (^Quarterly Statement, January, 
1 87 1.) Prof Palmer undertook the w^ork accompanied 
by ]\Ir. C. F, Tyrwhitt Drake, both now, unhappily, 

They travelled alone, on foot, and with no servants, 
being dressed as Syrians, and depending only on the 
escort of the camel drivers, who were changed from 
tribe to tribe, and on their own knowledge of the 
language and customs of the natives. 

The result of the expedition may be briefly summed 

I. Praehistoric monuments. 

They found scattered about numerous nazvaDiis 
("mosquito houses") similar to those which exist in 
the Peninsula of Sinai. These are circular con- 
structions about ten feet in diameter, built of unhewn 
stones and covered with a carefully constructed dome- 
shaped roof, the top of which is closed by a large slab 

Jebel Magrah 

W. Garaiyeh. 

^i'li :i:i|il|i'lllllililliii!lillilllliiiN!iih:wiliMiMliiM.nt,jv.ui.iiuiJ.l" .n-mii. 



of stone and the sides weighted to prevent them 
springing- out ; the entrance is by a low door, two feet 
high. They are Hke the "bothan" of the Shetland Isles. 

They found many large stone circles, some a hundred 
feet in diameter, having in the centre a cist covered 
with a heap of boulders. In the cists were human 

Beside these sepulchral rings were traces of the 
deserted buildings of the people buried in them. They 
are collections of circles enclosed within rudely shaped 
wallsj probably permanent camps of a pastoral people. 
We have here, probably, the Hazeroth of the Bible 
(Numbers xi. 35, Deuteronomy i. i). The Moors in 
Morocco to this day construct camping grounds 
exactly similar. On the hills about the Wady 
Muweileh were found among cairns and ancient 
dwellings, a great number of well made heaps of stone 
placed with regularity along the edge of the cliff 
and all facing east. These it is supposed are ancient 
altars of Baal, the Sun god. 

II. Biblical sites. 

I, The site of Kibroth Hattaavah (Numbers xi. 

The place proposed for this important identification 

now called Erweis el Ebierig, is an elevated ground, 

admirably adapted for the assemblage of a large 

concourse of people, and covered for miles round 

with traces of such an assemblage and sojourn. 



It is according to tradition the camp of a great Hajj 
caravan which in remote ages sojourned here and were 
afterwards lost and ncv^er heard of again. The 
distance is exactly a day's journey from 'Ain Hudherah. 

2. The site of Haradeh (Numbers xxxiii. 24). 
The place proposed is now called Jebel 'Aradeh. 

3. Eshcol (Numbers xiii. 23, 24). 

This place has generally been identified with 
Hebron, but Palmer found evidence that the vineyards 
formerly extended a long way south of that city, and 
that there is no need to place Eshcol so far north. 

4. Hagar's Well (Genesis xxi. 19). 

Identified with a spring in the Wady Muweileh. 

5. Kadcsh Barnea (Genesis xiv. 7 ; Numbers 

xiii. 3-26; xiv. 29-33; >^-^- i; Deuteronomy 

ii. 14). 

Palmer agreed with those who would place 
Kadesh in the region near where Rowlands made 
his discovery in the year 1840, but he failed to 
find Rowlands's great spring, which was not re- 
discovered for many years afterwards, when the Rev. 
F. W. Holland first,* and Dr. Clay Trumbull, an 
American traveller, secondly,! were so fortunate as 
to find it. The place and its associations are related 
by Mr. Trumbull in an excellent monograph called 

* May 14, 1878. StCQ Quarterly Statemetif, 1884, p. 9. 
t March 30lh, i88l. 

!""T ^'Si 







■A 2 




"Kadesh Barnea" (New York, 1884), from which the 
following eloquent account is quoted : — 

Out from the barren and desolate stretch of the burning 
desert-waste, we had come with a magical suddenness into 
an oasis of verdure and beauty, unlooked for and hardly 
conceivable in such a region. A carpet of grass covered the 
ground. Fig trees, laden with fruit nearly ripe enough for 
eating, were along the shelter of the southern hillside. 
Shrubs and flowers showed themselves in variety and pro- 
fusion. Running water gurgled under the waving grass. 
We had seen nothing like it since leaving Wady Fayran ; 
nor was it equalled in loveliness of scene by any single bit 
of landscape, of like extent, even there. 

Standing out from the earth-covered limestone hills at 
the north-eastern sweep of this picturesque recess, was to 
be seen the " large single mass, or a small hill, of solid 
rock,"* which Rowlands looked at as the cliff {SeFa) smitted 
by Moses, to cause it to " give forth his water,"t when its 
flowing stream had been exhausted. From underneath this 
ragged spur of the north easterly mountain range, issued 
the now abundant stream. 

A circular well, stoned-up from the bottom with time- 
worn limestone blocks, was the first receptacle of the water. 
A marble watering trough was near this well — better 
finished than the troughs at Beersheeba, but of like primi- 
tive workmanship. The mouth of this well was only about 
three feet across, and the water came to within three or 
four feet of the top. A little distance westerly from this 
well, and down the slope, was a second well, stoned-up 
much like the first, but of greater diameter; and here 
again was a marble watering trough. A basin or pool of 
water larger than either of the wells, but not stoned-up hke 

* William's Holy City, p. 490/. f Numbers xx. 8. 

E 2 


them, was stcmingly the principal watering place. It was 
a short distance south-westerly from the second well, and it 
looked as if it and the two wells might be supplied from 
the same subterranean source — the springs under the Rock. 
Around the margin of this pool, as also around the stoned 
wells, camel and goat dung — as if of flock and herds for 
centuries — was trodden down and commingled with the lime 
stone dust so as to form a solid plaster-bed. Another and 
yet larger pool, lower down the slope was supplied with 
water by a stream which rii)pled and cascaded along its 
narrow bed from the upper ])ool ; and yet beyond this, 
westward, the water gurgled away under the grass, as we 
had met it when we came in, and finally lost itself in the 
parching wady from which this oasis opened. The water 
itself was remarkably pure and sweet ; unequalled by any 
we had found after leaving the Nile. 

There was a New England look to this oasis, especially 
in the flowers and grass and weeds ; quite unlike anything 
we had seen in the peninsula of Sinai. Bees were humming 
there, and birds were flitting from tree to tree. Enormous 
ant hills made of green grass-seed, instead of sand, were 
numerous. As we came into the wady we had started up a 
hare, and had seen larks and quails. It was in fact hard 
to realise that we were in the desert or even near it. The 
delicious repose of the spot, after our journey over the arid, 
gravel-waste under the blazing mid-day sun, was most 
refreshing. The water itself was hardly less of a blessing 
to us than to the Israelites when it flowed and murmured 
anew for them after their murmurings. We seated ourselves 
in the delightful shade of one of the hills not far from the 
wells, and enjoyed our lunch, with the music of brook and 
bees and birds sounding pleasantly in our ears. Our 
Arabs seemed to feel the soothing influence of the place ; 
and to have lost all fear of the 'Azazimeh, even when 


the danger from them was probably greatest. After a 
brief rest on the grass, they all stripped, and plunged 
into the lower and larger pool for a bath. 

One thing was sure ; all that Rowlands had said of this 
oasis was abundantly justified by the facts. His enthusiasm 
and his active imagination had not coloured in the slightest 
his picture of the scene now before us. The sneers which 
other travellers had indulged in, over the creation of his 
heated fancies, were the result of their own lack of know- 
ledge — and charity. And as to the name of the oasis, 
about which Robinson and others were so incredulous, it 
is Qadees (^a^^'jji), as it was written for me in Arabic by 
my intelligent Arab dragoman, a similar name to that of 
Jerusalem, El-Quds, the Holy ; the equivalent of the 
Hebrew Kadesh. 

6. Zephath (Judges i. 17). 

The name of Sebata had been given to Rowlands, 

but no one else had ever heard it, and the place had 

never been visited. Palmer, however, found not only 

the name, under the form of Sebaita, but also the 

Watch Tower (Zephath) which gave the name to the 

city. The ruins are those of a large town, 500 yards 

long by 300 wide (modern Jerusalem within the walls 

is only about I, lOO yards across either north and south, 

or east and west). There are the ruins of three 

churches, a tower, and two reservoirs for water. No 

timber was used, the absence of wood being supplied 

by thick beams of stone as in the staircase. The 

place is three miles from the fortress, which according 

to Palmer's theory, c^ave it the name of the " Watch 



This is one of the most remarkable examples of 
the tenacity of the ancient names. It is 3,500 years 
since "Juclah, with Simon his brother," changed the 
name from Zephath to Hormah. The country has 
been successively Jewish, Roman, Christian, Moham- 
medan, Christian again, and Mohammedan again. 
Yet here is the original name surviving still. 

7. The Wells of Rehoboth (Genesis xxvi. 22). 

In Wady Ruhcibeh, Dr. Robertson could find no 
wells at all. Dr. Stewart found one. Dr. Rowlands 
found one. Palmer and Drake, after some search, 
discovered a well covered over by a piece of fallen 
masonry. The two wells of Genesis xxvi. 21, 22, 
were called Sitnah and Esek. On the left of the 
Wady Ruheibeh there is a small valley called 
Shutnet er Ruheibeh, in which is still found the 
word Sitnah. 

8. Aroer of Judah (i Samuel xxx. 28). 

This is in the Wady Ararah, a few walls only 

9. Elusa. 

This place, laid down in the Peutinger Tables, was 
identified by Robinson with Khalasah. But Robin- 
son did not visit it, and laid it down incorrectly. 
Palmer found it to be a shapeless mass of ruins. 

10. The Wells of Beersheba (Genesis xxi. 14, &c.). 
Here Palmer found the hill side covered with ruins, 


among them the remains of a Greek church {see 
p. lOl). 

11. Hora, a large ruin with caves, cisterns, and 

flint-built houses. 

12. Datreiyeh, built of solid masonry, and on 


13. Ed Dhaheriyeh, an old city of the Horites 
or Cave Dwellers. (Conder's Debir.) 

14. Abdeh, the ancient Eboda, 

This place was visited for the first time by Palmer. 

15. El 'Aujeh. 

The ruins contain a church with heaps of broken 
walls and half destroyed wells. 

III. The recovery of the geographical divisions of 
the Negeb or South country. Thus, 

1. In the low country north and west of Beersheba 

we recognise Negeb of the Cherethites. 

2. South of Hebron, in the outposts of the hills 

of Judah, we can identify the Negeb of 
Judah, the ruined cities of Tel Zif, Main, and 
Kurmul, indicating the locality of the Negeb 
of Caleb. 

3. Tel Arad and its adjacent plains form the 

Negeb of the Kenites, probably extending to 
the south-western end of the Dead Sea. 

4. Between Wady Rukhmeh in the north, and 

Wadies El Abyadh, Marrch, and Madarah, 
in the south, lay the Negeb of Jerahmeel. 


The mountains of the Azazimeh were not 
included in the Negeb. 

These are the principal results of a very remarkable 
and fruitful expedition, which was afterwards continued 
through Edom and Moab, with visits to Petra, Mount 
Hor, the Lisan, and Kcrak. The complete examination 
of this district, with excavations in the ruins, will be 
undertaken, it is hoped, in the immediate future. 




We how come to the Survey of Western Palestine, 
the work of which we have the most reason to be 
proud, because it has in every respect answered all 
our expectations. 

As regards previous geographical work in the Holy 
Land, the earliest maps worthy of mention are those of 
D'Anville(L'Empire Turc) and Rennell's Geography 
of Western Asia. A map of Palestine and Syria was 
prepared by Napoleon I., and the Admiralty survey 
of the coast included a certain amount of survey work 
of the interior. The first attempt to classify and 
portray in a .systematic manner the results obtained 
by earlier travellers was in the map of Bcrghaus (Karte 
von Syrien) published in the year 1835. Among 
those travellers are the well-known Clarke, Seetzen, 
Burckhardt, Irby and Mangles, Catherwood, Wellsted, 
and others. In 1836-37, Von Schubert travelled through 
the country and added considerably to the knowledge 
of its natural history and scenery. In 1838 Rus- 
segger collected a great quantity of geological infor- 
mation. In the same year Robinson and Smith 


made their first journey through the country from 
Sinai to Damascus. Robinson had prepared himself 
by fifteen years of study. The map which resulted 
from his observations entirely superseded Bcrghaus, 
while his account of his travels was, up to the appear- 
ance of our new map with the Memoirs, the text-book 
of all students of Biblical geography. 

In 1 84 1 Lieutenant Symonds, R.E., made a triangu- 
lation from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and from there to the 
Dead Sea ; and another from Cape Blanco to Safed 
and the Sea of Galilee. Sketches were also made at 
the same time by Scott, Robe, and Wilbraham. 
In 1847 Lieutenant Molyneux descended the Jordan 
from Galilee to the Dead Sea, but unfortunately died 
from the effects of exposure to the sun. Lynch, who 
followed him in 1848, executed a rough sketch 
of the course of the Jordan and a chart of the Dead 
Sea. In 1850 the western and southern shores of the 
Dead Sea were visited by M. De Saulcy ; in 1851-52 
Van de Velde first visited the country; in 1852 
Robinson and Eli Smith made a second journey ; 
in 1853 Dean Stanley made his first journey; in 
1850-55, Dr. Porter lived in the country; in 1855 
Mr. Poole investigated the western and southern 
shores; in 1857, Mr. Cyril Graham travelled in the 
Hauran and the district of the El Harrah; in 1858 
Herr Wetzstein also visited the Hauran ; in 1860-61, 
the French troops being in Syria, certain reconnais- 


sances were made, afterwards embodied in the Carte 
du Liban ; Captain Mansel, R.N. at the same time 
made an Admiralty survey of the coast. In the years 
1861-62, Van de Velde made a second visit to the 
country, and in 1863 Dean Stanley also visited it 
again. In 1863-64 Canon Tristram travelled through 
Palestine, and at the same time the Due de Luynes 
took a party into the country, among whom were 
Lieutenant Vogues of the French navy, and M. 
Lartet. The former executed a map of the Dead Sea 
and the Arabah, while the latter published a work on 
the geology of Palestine, which is of the highest 
value. In 1870 Captains Mieulet and Derrien, of the 
French Etat Major, began what was intended to be a 
survey of the whole country, but were recalled by the 
outbreak of the Franco- German war. 

So much then, not including Wilson and Ander- 
son's work of 1865 and the reconnaissance of Warren 
in 1 867- 1 870, had been done for the geography of 
Palestine before the survey. 

At the commencement, and in order to set 
forth the need of such a survey, there was prepared a 
comparative map showing first a portion of Pales- 
tine, including a small piece of country surveyed 
by Wilson, and beside it a corresponding portion 
from the ordnance survey of Kent. The map of 
Van de Velde was at that time the best of all 
maps of Palestine \ it was the work of a careful 


and scientific traveller and scholar, who not only took 
observations himself, but laid down on his map all 
the observations made by previous travellers. We 
had before the meeting of June 22nd, 1886, an 
enlargement of a portion of Van de Velde's map, 
and beside it, an enlargement of the Society's survey 
of the same portion. The first, with its hills roughly 
sketched in, its valleys laid down roughly, and its 
inhabited places, villages, or ruins, gives absolutely 
all that was known of this piece of country before 
the survey. It was on such a map as this, the best 
at the time, because the most faithful, that the 
geographical student had to work. There was little 
use from a geographical point of view in consulting 
previous books of travel, because they gave no facts 
other than had been taken from them and laid down 
upon the map by Van de Velde ; hardly any single 
place was laid down correctly ; none of the hill 
shading was accurate ; the course of the rivers 
and valleys was not to be depended upon ; the de- 
pression of the Lake of Galilee was variously stated ; 
distances were estimated by the rough reckoning 
of time taken from place to place ; and out of the 
10,000 names collected by our officers and laid upon 
our map, Van de Velde's had about 1,800, while the 
general index of names given by Robinson shows only 
17 1 2 names. Not a single position certain; not a 
single distance trustworthy ; not a range of hills, not 


a river or a wady correctly laid down ; and only an 
eighth part of the modern names collected, and this 
for a country where the ancient names survive with 
a most remarkable vitality, clinging under changed 
forms to the old sites ; where the history which these 
lands illustrate is singularly minute, and assumes 
everywhere a knowledge of the country, so that the 
writer never stops to explain where the scene of every 
episode occurs, except to name it as a spot already 
known, and where the boundaries of the tribes cannot 
possibly be laid down without an exact knowledge of 
those features which in every country constitute the 
natural boundaries. 

It was to remedy this state of things that the 
survey was undertaken. The first officer in command 
was Captain Stewart, R.E. With him was associated 
Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake, attached partly as a 
naturalist, partly as archaeologist, and partly on 
account of his knowledge of the country and the 
people, having been on expeditions previously, once 
with Captain Burton in North Syria,* and once with 
Professor Palmer through the Desert of the Tih (see 
supra chapter V.). 

Captain Stewart, however, was unfortunately in- 
valided home and obliged to resign almost at the veiy 
outset. Sergeants Black and Armstrong, his assistants, 
began and carried on the work until the arrival of 

* See " Unexplored Syria," by Burton ami Drake, 1S72. 



Lieutenant Conder, R.E. The survey went on without 
interruption until June, 1874, when Mr. Drake was 
attacked by fever and died. His place was taken by 
Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E. The next interruption, 
four-fifths of the work being then accomplished, was 
in July, 1875, when the party were attacked by the 
Safed people and compelled to retreat to Haifa. 

Here Captain Conder remained to fight the case in the 
Turkish courts, and on obtaining a sentence and fine 
for the assailants, returned to England, where the 
party were occupied with field work at home. 

In 1877, Lieutenant Kitchener went out again and 
finished the survey, returning home in 1878. The 
work was accomplished under great pressure and in 



a time of great excitement. The principal discoveries 
made by Captain Kitchener in this part of the survey, 
which included the greater part of Galilee, were cf a 
previously unknown synagogue, two cromlechs and a 
large number of ruins. The two cromlechs, together 

Cromlech in Galilee. 

.y ^^. 

with a rude stone monument discovered by Mr. 
Laurence Oliphant in the hilly country of Eastern 
Judea, are the only old stone monuments remaining 
in Western Palestine. 

The map when completed was photo-lithographed 
by the Ordnance Survey Department at Southampton. 
It was published in 1880. A reduction was made on 
the scale of 8 miles to 3 inches, and engraved for the 
Committee by Mr. Edward Stanford, a truly beautiful 
piece of work, and one which reflects the greatest 
credit on the engraver. 

The memoirs which were intended to accompany this 
work were compiled from their note books by Captains 


Conder and Kitchener during the years 1876-80, and 
are published in the " Survey of Western Palestine " 

The Biblical Gains from the survey may be con- 
sidered from many points of view. 

First, therefore, from that of the recovery of ancient 
sites. There are 622 Biblical names west of the 
Jordan. Of these 262 were known before the Survey 
was commenced, that is, rather more than a third. 
During the Survey no fewer than 172 were discovered, 
and arc now generally accepted. So that of the 
whole number of places now identified, namely 434, 
almost exactly two-fifths are due to the Survey. 
There still remain 188 places hitherto undiscovered. 
Some of these may lie among the 10,000 names 
collected by the surveyors. Others may still be 
discovered, because we cannot pretend in a country so 
full of names to have collected every one. But those 
which yet await recovery are for the most part obscure 
places mentioned perhaps once or twice, such as the 
Brook Besor(i Samuel xxx. 9, 10, 21), Avim (Joshua 
xviii. 23), or Elcph (Joshua xviii. 28). Some names 
not yet found are important, such as Arimathoea, 
Gath, the Brook Cherith, Eshcol, the stone Ezel, 
Gethsemane, Nob, Mamre, and Ziklag. It is to be 
hoped that all these names will, one by one, be 
rescued from oblivion. 

As regards the natural features of the countr}-, the 




Survey has substituted exact detail for general state- 
ments. It is impossible in these short limits to 
explain the enormous importance of this to the 
historical student. The boundaries of tribes ; the 
march of armies ; the route of travellers and pil- 
grims ; the way of commerce ; intercourse with foreign 
nations ; the fords, passes, and valleys open for an 
invader,— these things form the foundation of Bible 
history ; without these things its history cannot be 
understood. And these things are found legible to 
him that can read maps on our great survey. A few ! 

instances, however, may be adduced. The ancient 
and royal city of Tirzah, the residence of Jeroboam ' 

and his successors — " beautiful as Tirzah, comely as 
Jerusalem " — is one of the places recovered by the 

Just twelve miles east of our Jeb'a camp, on a plateau 
where the valleys begin to dip suddenly towards Jordan, 
stands the mud hamlet of Teiasir. We afterwards visited 
it from the Jordan camp, and found it to have been once 
a place of importance, judging from the numerous rock-cut 
sepulchres burrowing under the houses, the fertile lands and 
fine olives round, and the monument of good masonry, 
seemingly a Roman tomb. Just north, of it we discovered 
a ruin called Ibzik, which is unquestionably a Bezek known 
to Eusebius, and i)robal)ly the place where Saul collected 
his army before attacking the Ammonites (i Samuel xi. b). 

In the latter ruin is a little chapel dedicated to Neby 
Hazkin, " the Prophet Ezekiel," and the high mountain 
crowned with thicket behind is called " Ezekiel's Moun- 


This name Teiasir I su])pose to be Tirzah. It contains 
the exact letters of the Hebrew word, though the two last 
radicals are interchanged in position, a kind of change not 
unusual among the peasantry. The beauty of the position 
and the richness of the plain on the west, the ancient 
remains, and the old main road to the ]ilace from Shechem 
seem to agree well with the idea of its having once been 
a capital ; and if I am right in the suggestion, then the 
old sepulchres are probably, some of them, those of the 
early kings of Israel before the royal family began to be 
buried in Samaria. 

Or, as an illustration of how the map and a descrip- 
tion together help to restore the past, read what 
Captain Condcr says of the defeat and flight of Sisera. 

The subject which naturally concludes the account of 
the Plain, is therefore the great battle in which the host of 
Sisera was drowned in the swollen waters of this river. 

The amount of light which can now be thrown on this 
episode is very great. The topography has hitherto been 
obscure, but the survey does much to explain it. To sup- 
pose that Sisera fled from the Great Plain to the neighbour- 
hood of Kedes in Upper Galilee (a distance of over thirty 
miles) has always appeared to me to be contrary to what we 
know of the general character of the Biblical stories, the 
scenes of which are always laid in a very confined area ; 
nor has the name of the plain, Bitzaanaim, near Kedesh, 
been recovered in th's direction. Bitzaanaim was a town 
of Issachar, near Adami (Ed Damieh) and should there- 
fore be sought east of Tabor in the plateau over the Sea of 
Galilee, where we still find it in the modern Bessum. 
The Kedesh of the narrative where Barak assembled his 
troops is therefore probably Kedish on the shore of the Sea 
of (ialilee, only twelve miles from Tabor. There is thus, 



- _ ., ^ . ^ . ,> ..^ ^ I 1 1 1 1 I I III 

Restored/ Seclcon, & EleyaUaro 
N. Froni/ 

Tomb at Teiasir. 

F 2 


from a military point of view, a consistency in the advance 
to Tabor (a strong position in the line by which the enemy 
was approaching), which is lacking if we suppose a descent 
from the stronger hills of Upper Galilee. The Kings of 
Canaan assembled in Taanach and by the waters of 
Megiddo, but it was not at either of these places that the 
battle was fought. Sisera was drawn to the river Kishon 
(Judges iv. 7), and the host perished near Endor, " at the 
brook Kishon " (Psalm Ixxxiii. 10). The battle-field indeed 
was almost identical with that which Napoleon named the 
" battle of Mount Tabor," when the French drove the Turks 
into that same treacherous quagmire of the Kishon springs. 
There are few episodes in the Old Testament more 
picturesque than this of the defeat of the Canaanites. 
Tabor, the central position, a mountain whose summit is 
1,500 feet above the plain, is bare and shapeless on the 
south, but to the north it is steep, and wooded with oaks 
and thickets in which the fallow-deer finds a home. About 
three miles west are the springs from which the Kishon 
first rises, and from this point a chain of pools and springs, 
fringed with reeds and rushes, marks, even in the dry 
season, the course of the river. Along this line, at the 
base of the northern hills, the chariots and horsemen of 
Sisera fled. The sudden storm had swollen the stream, 
" the river Kishon swept them away, that river of battles, 
the river Kishon." The remainder fled to Harosheth, now 
only a miserable village (El Harathiyeh), named from the 
beautiful woods above the Kishon at the point where, 
through a narrow gorge, the stream, hidden among oleander 
bushe.s, enters the Plain of Acre. 

The flight of Sisera himself was in an opposite direction, 
under the slopes of Tabor and across the great lava plateau 
on which stood, near Bessum, the black tent of Heber the 
Kenite. The two incidents in the tragedy of his murder 


by Jael, which most require illustration are tlie "milk" and 
"butter" with which she regaled her victim, and the 
reasons which, in her eyes, justified the deed. 

The Bedawin have a delicious preparation of curdled 
milk called Leben, which is offered to guests, but generally 
considered a delicacy ; from personal experience I know 
that it is most refreshing to a traveller when tired and hot, 
but it has also a strange soporific effect, which was so 
sudden in its action on one English clergyman after a long 
ride, that he thought he had been poisoned. It was 
perhaps not without a knowledge of its probable effects, 
that Jael gave to her exhausted guest a tempting beverage 
which would make his sleep sound and long. 

The murder of a fugitive and a guest is so contrary to 
the morality of the Semitic nomads, that we must seek for 
a very strong justification. It could not have been national 
enthusiasm which actuated Jael, for she was a Kenite, not a 
Jewess, one of a nation hostile to Israel, and there " was 
peace between Jabin King of Hazor (Sisera's master) and 
the house of Heber the Kenite." The true reason is pro- 
bably to be sought in Sisera's entering the tent at all. 
There are instances in later history in which a defeated 
Arab has sheltered himself in the women's apartments, but 
such an infringement of Eastern etiquette has always been 
punished by death , and it is not improbable that in re- 
venge for such an insult Jael seized the iron tent-peg and 
drove it with the mallet, used to fix the tents to the ground, 
through Sisera's brain. 

One final illustration m.ay be added, suggested to me 
quite lately by an English clergyman. In the magnificent 
song of Deborah, the great storm which swelled the Kishon 
is described : 

"They fought from heaven, the stars in their courses 
fought against Sisera " (Judges v. 20). 


The season was probably that of the autumn storms 
which occur early in November. At this time the meteoric 
showers are commonest, and arc remarkably fine in effect, 
seen in the evening light at a season when the air is 
specially clear and bright. The scene presented by the 
falling fiery stars, as the defeated host fled away by night, is 
one very striking to the fancy, and which would form a fine 
subject for an artist's pencil. 

Another interesting site is Antipatris, of which 
Captain Conder writes : — 

It was well known in the fourth century, but its site was 
lost to the Crusaders, who identified it at Arsuf, the ancient 
Appollonia, where also the more ignorant supposed Ashdod 
to have stood. It is only within the last twenty years that 
attention has been directed to the true site. 

Josephus describes Antipatris as a city in the plain, close 
to the hills, in a position well watered, with a river encom- 
passing the city, and with groves of trees. Now, as there is 
but one river in the plain of Sharon, anywhere near the 
required part, and as there is on that river but one impor- 
tant ancient site, surrounded by water and near the hills, 
we can have little doubt as to the locality of the town, 
first apparently identified by the late Consul Finn, in 1850 ; 
but, in addition to this, we have in the old itineraries, 
various measurements to surrounding places which, though 
not quite exact, still serve to indicate the same site. They 
are as follows : 

R.M. R.M. 

Antipatris to Galgula {Kalkilia) 6, measures 6-^ 

„ Lydda 10, ,, 11 

„ Betthar {Tireh) 10, „ 9^ 

„ Csesarea 28, ,, 30 

These measurements on the survey bring us to the ruined 


site of Ras el 'Ain, a large mound covered with ruins from 
the sides of which on the north and west, the River 
'Auian (the Biblical Mejarkon, or "yellow water"), gushes 
forth, a full-sized stream. 

A confusion has arisen between Antipatris and a town 
called Caphar Saba, in consequence of the loose description, 
given by Josephus, of a ditch dug by Alexander Balas, 
" from Cabarzaba, now called Antipatris," to Joppa (Ant. 
xiii. 15, i) ; but the same author afterwards explains that 
Caphar Saba was a district name, applied to the plain near 
Antipatris (Ant. xvi. 5, 2). 

In the Talmud, the two towns, Antipatris and Caphar 
Saba, are both noticed in a manner which leaves little doubt 
that they were separate places. Of Antipatris, we learn 
that it was a town on the road from Judea to Galilee, the 
boundary of " the Land " on the side of Samaria ; and, as I 
have noted above, the great boundary actually runs into 
the plain at this point. But while Antipatris was a Jewish 
city, Caphar Saba was in the district which was considered 
foreign ground, as within Samaritan territory, and an 
idolatrous tree existed there, perhaps now represented by 
the great sacred tree at Neby Serakah, close to Kefr Saba, 
five and a-half miles north of Ras el 'Ain. 

Antipatris, with two other places, Jishub and Balris, is 
mentioned as a station at the entrance to "the King's 
Mountain," as the Jews called the Judean hills. This 
agrees with its situation at the base of the hills, the other 
places being, perhaps, Siifin and iiudrus, in the same 

The site thus fixed by the survev measureiuent.s, is one 
naturally better fitted for an important town than any in the 
district. The name has indeed vanished, being a (}reek 
title derived from tliat of Herod's father, and always 
awkward to the mouths of the natives ; but the stream, the 



mound of ruins, and the neighbouring hills remain ; the 
deep blue pools of fresh water well up close beneath the 

S c ale 5^gQ 

W* J <^ 70 30 'y jc 6C y ^c 9r 1^'^ t't^ tfo ttr t*o i^f> t^ "o tfc 'P* tCf'letl 

fm^^^'T^^:^'^'^^^^^^^^^-^'^- ^^^^:^^;^^^v v^^/^g^^:-4 


,U The Castle stands nrLCymoumiyncaSunruj 1000 feexE& WbyiiSC^ 

Crusading: Castle at Ras el "Ain. 

hillock, surrounded by tall canes, and willows, rushes, and 
grass. A sort of ragged lawn extends some two hundred 
yards southwards, and westward the stream flows rapidly 


away, burrowing between deep banks, and rolling to the 
sea, a yellow, turbid, sandy volume of water, unfordable in 
winter, and never dry, even in summer. 

The ruins of Herod's city are now covered with the shell 
of a great Crusading castle. The knights seem to have 
taken the name Mirr, or " Passage," applied to a hamlet 
near the ford, and transformed it into Mirabel, by adding 
" bel," a word which occurs in the names of several of 
their fortresses, such as Belfort, Belvoir, &c. The 
castle is flanked with round towers, and resembles that of 
Capernaum (near 'Athlit), on a larger scale. It was here 
that Manasseh, the cousin of Queen Melisenda, was besieged, 
in 1 149, by Baldwin III., and obliged to capitulate. In 
1T91 IVIirabel was dismantled by Saladin, on the approach 
of King Richard, in common with Plans, Capernaum, and 
many other castles ; nor does it appear to have been 
subsequently restored. 

Before the survey it would have seemed hopeless to 

recover a place mentioned only once, and then in 

connection with an event of such great antiquity as 

the career of Samson. Captain Conder, however, 

found it while in Samson's country. 

The substitution of B for M is so common (as in Tibneh 
for Timnah), tliat the name " 'Atab " may very properly re- 
present the Hebrew Etam (or " eagle's nest ") ; and there 
are other indications of the identity of the site. It is 
pre-eminently a " rock " — a knoll of hard limestone 
without a handful of arable soil, standing, above deep 
ravines, by three small springs. The place is also one 
which has long been a hiding-place, and the reciuirements 
of the liible story are met in a remarkable way ; for the 
word rendered "top of the Rock Etam " is in reality "cleft " 
or " chasm "; and such a chasm exists here — a long, narrow 



cavern, such as Samson might well have "gone down " into, 
and wliich bears the suggestive name Hasuta, meaning 
" refuge " in Hebrew, but having in modern Arabic no 
signification at all. 

This remarkable " cave of refuge " is two hundred and 
fifty feet long, eighteen feet wide, and five to eight feet 
high ; its south-west end is under the centre of the modern 
village ; its north-east extremity, where is a rock shaft ten 
feet deep leading down from the surface of the hill, is 
within sixty yards of the principal spring. 

The identification thus proposed for the Rock Etam is, 
I believe, quite a new one ; and it cannot, I think, fail to 
be considered satisfactory, if we consider the modern name, 
the position, and the existence of this remarkable chasm. 
Ramath Lehi, where the Philistines assembled when search- 
ing for Samson (Judges xv. 9-10), is naturally to be sought 
in the vicinity of Zoreah — Samson's home, and of the 
Rock Etam where he took refuge. 

Rock Allar of Zoiah. 

A little way north-west of Zoreah, seven miles from Beit 
'Atab, is a low hill, on the slope of which are springs called 
Ayun Abu Meharib, or the " fountains of the place of 


battles." Close by is a little Moslem chapel, dedicated to 
Sheikh Nedhir, or "the Nazarite chief ;" and, higher up, 
a ruin with the extraordinary title Ism Allah—" the name 
of God." The Nazarite chief is probably Samson, whose 
memory is so well preserved in this small district, and the 
place is perhaps connected with a tradition of one of his 
exploits. The Ism Allah is possibly a corruption of EsnVa 
Allah — " God heard " — in which case the incident intended 
will be the battle of Ramath Lehi. Finally, we were 
informed by a native of the place that he springs were 
sometimes called 'Ayun Kara, in which name we should 
recognise easily the En Hak-Kore, or "fountain of the 
crier " (Judges XV. 19). 

To say that this spot certainly represents Rathmath Lehi 
— "the hill of the jaw-bone" — would be too bold. It 
seems, however, clear that a tradition of one of Samson's 
exploits lingers here ; the position is appropriate for the 
scene of the slaughter with the jaw-bone, and we have not 
succeeded in finding any other likely site. 

We may note the shifting of sites— Nazareth, for 
instance, has slipped down the hill, and Jericho has 
been three times changed. 

As regards the Cities of the Plain, a remarkable 
example occurs of how the survey may be used to 
recover a site. Beyond the information that they 
were in the Vale of Siddim, " which is the Salt Sea," 
there is nothing known. But it seems almost certain 
from many considerations, that they must have been 
somewhere at the north of the Dead Sea, and this 
being so they may have stood at some distance from 



each other, and it is further absohitely certain that 
they must each have been built within reach of a 
freshwater spring. 

Now there are but few springs on the north shore of 
the Dead Sea or in the plain near it. On the north- 
west there is a fine spring called 'Ain Feshkhah and 

Ain Jidy. 

higher up the valley springs are abundant. Guided 
by this spring we find a great bluff not far south of 
it called Tubk 'Amriyeh and a neighbouring valley 
called Wady 'Amriyeh. Now this word is radically 
identical w^ith Gomorrah Again, where is Zcboim? 
The word means " hya:nas." A cliff just above the 
plain, near the site of modern Jericho, is called Shukh 
cd Duba, (lair of the hyaena). Is this the site of Zeboim? 


Again, to show how at every step of the way the 
Bible may be illustrated : 

There is one other remarkable natural feature in this 
interesting plain of Jericho which demands attention — the 
Kelt Valley, running from the spring of that name, and south 
of Eriha, past Jiljulieh to Jordan. There seems no doubt 
that this is the Valley of Achor, in which Achan was 
stoned ; and the bed of the valley is full of boulders and 
pebbles of every size, which would account for its being 
chosen as the scene of the execution, as there is hardly a 
stone in the greater part of the plain round it. 

Wady Kelt has been also thought to be the Brook 
Cherith, and the scene seems well fitted for the retreat of 
the prophet who was fed by the " 'Oreb," whom some 
suppose to have been Arabs. The whole gorge is wonder- 
fully wild and romantic, it is a huge fissure rent in the 
mountains, scarcely twenty yards across at the bottom, and 
full of canes and rank rushes between vertical walls of rock. 
In its cliffs the caves of early anchorites are hollowed, and 
the little monastery of St. John of Choseboth is perched 
above the north bank, under a high, brown precipice. A 
fine aqueduct from the great spring divides at this latter 
place into three channels, crossing a magnificent bridge 
seventy feet high, and running a total distance of three 
miles and three-quarters, to a place where the gorge de- 
bouches into the Jericho plain. On each side the white 
chalk mountains tower up in fantastic peaks, with long knife- 
edged ridges, and hundreds of little conical points, with 
deep torrent-seams between. All is bare and treeless, as 
at Mar Saba. The wild pigeon makes its nest in the "secret 
])laces of the stairs '' of rock ; the black grackle suns its 
golden wings above them ; the eagle soars higher still, and 
over the caves by the deep pools the African kingfisher 




Mar Saba. 

flutters ; the ibex also still haunts the rocks. Even in 
autumn the murmuring of water is heard beneath, and the 
stream was one day swelled by a thunderstorm in a quarter 
of an hour, until it became a raging torrent, in some places 
eight or ten feet deep. 

One more recovery. Is not the site of Bcthabara 
dear to all Christians ? This is the story^ of a 
suggestion, if not a recovery : 

The fords were collected and marked in the natural 
course of the survey, the names carefully obtained, and 
every precaution taken to ensure their being applied to the 
right places. It was not, however, until the next winter that 
I became aware how valuable a result had been obtained. 
Looking over the nomenclature for the purpose of making an 


index, I was struck with the name 'Abarah applying to a 
ford. The word means " passage," or " ferry," and is radi- 
cally the same word found in the name Bethabara. I 
looked 'Abarah out at once on the map, and found that it 
is one of the main fords, just above the place where the 
Jalud river, flowing down the valley of Jezreel and by 
Beisan, debouches into Jordan. 

One cannot but look on this as one of the most valuable 
discoveries resulting from the survey ; and I have not, as 
yet, seen any argument directed against the identification 
which seems to shake it. It may be said that the name 
'Abarah is merely descriptive, and perhaps applies to several 
fords. That it is descriptive may be granted ; so is the 
name Bethabara, or Bethel, or Gibeah, or Ramah. That it 
is a common name may be safely denied. AVe have 
collected the names of over forty fords, and no other is 
called 'Abarah ; nor does the word occur again in all the 
9000 names collected by the survey party. 

Nor do we depend on the name alone. An identification 
may be defined as the recovery of a site unknown to 
Europeans, but known to the natives of the country. 
Evidently places can only be known by their names, unless 
we have measured distances by which to fix them. If in 
England we endeavoured to recover an ancient site, and 
knew the district in which it should occur, we should be 
satisfied if we found the ancient name applying to one place, 
and one only, in that district. A\'ithout the name, we should 
still be in doubt. Does not this apply to Palestine ? It is 
true that name alone will not be sufficient ; position must 
be suitable also. No one would try to identify Yarmouth 
in Norfolk with Yarmouth in the Isle of \\'ight. But, on 
the other hand, without the name it is merely conjecture, 
not identification, that is possible. 

Here at 'Abarah we have the name, and nowhere else, as 


yet, has the name been found ; the question then arises, is 
the position suitable ? 

We speak commonly (A liethabara as the place of Our 
Lord's baptism. Possibly it was so, but the Gospel does 
not say as much. It is only once mentioned as a place 
where John was baptising, and where certain events hap- 
pened on consecutive days. These events are placed in 
the Gospel harmonies immediately after the Temptation, 
when Christ would aj^pear to have been returning from the 
Desert (perhaps east of Jordan) to Galilee. Bethabara, 
" the house of the ferry," was " beyond Jordan ; '" but the 
place of baptism was no doubt at the ford or ferry itself; 
hence the ford 'Abarah is the place of interest. It cannot 
be Christian tradition which originates this site, for Christian 
tradition has pointed, from the fourth century down to the 
present day, to the fords of Jericho as the place of baptism 
by St. John. 

" And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of 
Galilee" (John ii. i). Here is the controlling passage. 
The hostile critics of the fourth Gospel have taken hold of 
it ; they have supposed the traditional site to be un- 
doubtedly the true one, and have thence argued the 
impossibility that in one day Christ could have travelled 
eighty miles to Cana. To the fourth century enquirer the 
difficulty would never have occurred ; he would have 
answered at once that Our Lord was miraculously carried 
from one place to the other; but the Gospel does not say 
so, and we should therefore look naturally for Bethabara 
within a day's journey of Cana. The ford 'Abarah is about 
twenty -two miles in a line from Kefr Kenna, and no place 
can be found, on Jordan, much nearer or more easily 
accessible to the neighbourhood of Cana. 

I leave these facts to the reader, asking him to choose 
between the difficulties attendant ©n the traditional site, and 


the suitability of the new site, where alone as yet the name 
of Bethabara has been recovered. 

There is, however, another point with regard to Betha- 
bara which must not be overlooked. The oldest MSS. 
read, not Bethabara, but Bethany, beyond Jordan. Origen 
observed this, yet chose the present reading, and we can 
hardly suppose that the early fathers of the Church made 
such an alteration without some good reason ; perhaps the 
original text contained both names, "Bethabara in Bethany" 
beyond Jordan being a possible reading. 

The author of " Supernatural Religion " has made a point 
of this reading in arguing against the authenticity of the 
fourth Gospel. He supposes that Bethany beyond Jordan 
has been confused in the Evangelist's mind with Bethany 
near Jerusalem, forgetting that this very Gospel speaks of 
the latter place as "nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen 
furlongs off" (John xi. 18). The assumption of the 
confusion is quite gratuitous. Bethania, meaning " soft 
soil," was the well-known form used in the time of Christ, of 
the old name Bashan, which district was in Peraea, or the 
country beyond Jordan. 

If Bethabara be a true reading, the place should thus 
most probably be sought in Bethania, and the ford should 
therefore lead over co Bashan. This again strengthens the 
case for the 'Abarah ford, which is near the hills of Bashan, 
whereas the Jericho fords are far away, leading over towards 
Gilead and Moab. 

Again, to quote from a paper called "Some of the 
Biblical Gains due to the New Survey," published in 
the Quarterly Statement o( ]anuaTy, 1881 : 

Geographical discoveries of remarkable interest and value 
are at once recognised by those who compare the Survey 
Map with former maps of Palestine. The Sea of Galilee 



proves to have a depression nearly loo feet greater than 
was formerly supposed. The courses of the main affluents 
of Jordan on the west are entirely different from those 

Sea of Galilee. 

previously shown. The Crocodile River springs from a 
source formerly unsuspected. Villages have been trans- 
posed from one side to the other of great boundary valleys, 
forty fords of Jordan are now known where only four were 
previously marked. Ten thousand modern names occur on 
the map, of which nearly nine-tenths were previously un- 
known. Important notes as to the geological structure of 
the country, its physical features, cultivation, soil, cUmate. 
and natural products have been collected, and the traditions 
and customs of its inhabitants have been noted. And from 
an archseological point of view our information as to the 
dates, the positions, and the nature of the existing ruins, as 
to the character of the peasant language, and as to the 
manners, customs, and superstitions of the rustic population 
has been enormously increased. 


There is another peculiarity with regard to Bibhcal 
geography which lends additional interest and importance 
to the subject. Palestine is a little country, the length of 
which might be traversed by rail in six hours and its breadth 
in less than two. The six hundred Bible sites which are to 
be found within its limits are thus on an average to be 
sought within an area of ro square miles a piece. When 
David fled farthest from Saul he was yet not more than 40 
miles from Bethlehem, nor more than 50 from Gibeah where 
Saul abode. Most of the famous deeds of Samson took 
place in a district containing an area of less than 40 square 
miles. Jerusalem itself covered at the height of its pros- 
perity not more than 330 acres, including 30 acres of the 
Temple enclosure. The closeness of the topography while 
on the one hand rendering its recovery more difficult, lends 
on the other a wonderful vividness and reality to the ancient 
episodes of Hebrew history. At Hebron we may almost 
trace each step of Abner's way from the Well of Sirah to his 
doom at the city gate. By Michmash we may gaze on the 
very rock up which Jonathan climbed. At Shechem we 
may stand on the brink of Jacob's well, in the very foot 
prints of Christ. We are not content to know that Caper- 
naum was north of Tiberias, and insist on fixing the exact 
spot now disputed by sites only about 2\ miles distant one 
from the other. Fierce controversies arise between those 
who place Cana 4 miles north of the traditional site and 
those who support the latter view. Topography, in short, 
takes the place in Palestine of geography, and for this reason 
a plan rather than a map is required. 

Commencing, then, with the immigration of Abraham 
from beyond Euphrates, the first topographical question 
which arises is that of the e.xact position of the royal 
Canaanite city of Ai. (Sheet XVII.) 

The situation of this ancient town, afterwards entirely 

G 2 


destroyed by Joshua, is minutely described in the Bible. 
It was " beside " Bethel (Joshua xii. 9), and the Hebrew 
has here the force of " close to," which appears fatal to the 
claims of various sites south and east of Michmash (or more 
than 6 miles from Bethel) which have been proposed. Ai 
lay also east of Bethel (Joshua viii. 9) with a ravine to the 
north (verse 11) and a desert to the east (verse 15), while 
to the west was a place fitted for the ambush which the 
Israelites set. These indications were so definite that but 
little doubt could exist as to the approximate situation of 
the town. Travellers visited and described a ruin called 
et Tell, " the mound," which seems first to have been 
pointed out by Van de Velde, and the somewhat fanciful 
conjecture was advanced that this place derived its name 
trom the fact that Joshua made of Ai "a heap {Tell in the 
Hebrew) for ever" (Joshua viii. 28). 

To this view there were, however, objections. There is 
no certain indication that the hillock of et Tell was ever the 
site of a city, and the expression " for ever " should be 
taken rather as an indication of the early date of the Book 
of Joshua, for Ai reappears as a town in the later Jewish 
books (Nehemiah xi. 31 ; Isaiah x. 28). Fortunately the 
survey party were able to suggest a better explanation 
through the discovery of the ancient ruins of Haiyan 
immediately south of et Tell. The name recalls the Aina of 
Josephus (equivalent to Ai, Ant. v. i, 9), and the existence 
of large rock-hewn reservoirs with tombs and cisterns proves 
•ihe site to be of importance and antiquity. To the north is 
a rugged ravine, to the east the desolate desert of Bethaven. 
To the west is Bethel, 2 miles distant, and between the two 
sites is the open ravine called " the valley of the city," where 
unseen, yet close at hand, the ambush may have lain con- 
cealed beneath the low cliffs or among the olive groves after 
creeping across from the northern valley behind the rough 
rocky swell which runs out to the mound of et Tell. 


It was from the flat ridge which rises from between Bethel 
and Ai that Abraham and Lot looked down on the Cities of 
the Plain and on the " circle " of Jordan, and the view from 
this point over the desert ranges and the Jordan valley to 
Nebo and Moab is still striking and picturesque. 

As regards the position of these famous cities which 
Josephus believed to have lain beneath the waters of the 
Dead Sea, but which modern students place in the Jericho 
Plain or in the corresponding basin (Ghor es Seiseban) east 
of Jordan, the survey results were rather of negative than of 
positive value. A very close and careful examination of the 
ground showed that no traces of the sites of any towns 
occur between Jericho and the Dead Sea shore, the re- 
maining ruins belonging only to medieval monastic estab- 
lishments, and that no springs suitable for the supply of 
even small villages exist, or probably ever existed, in this 
district. Thus, although an apparently successful attempt 
has been made by Dr. Selah Merrill to recover the site of 
Zoar, our information as to the other four cities, the destruc- 
tion of which is described in the Book of Genesis (chapter 
xix), remains indecisive. Captain Conder has, however, 
pointed out that the term "plain" {Ciccar) is applied in the 
Bible to the Jordan valley as far north as Succoth, which 
renders it not improbable that Admah, one of the lost cities, 
is identical with Adam, a city of Jordan (Joshua iii. ii), the 
name of which still survives at the Damieh ford east of 
Shechem. (Sheet XV.) 

Among the nations inhabiting Palestine in the time of 
Abraham the Kenites — a tribe as yet unidentified — are 
mentioned (Genesis xv. 19). They inhabited a strong 
fortress in the southern part of the country and survived 
until the time of David. Captain Conder proposes to 
identify this site with the town of Cain which Van de Velde 
found in the present ruin of Yekhi. This affords an 


interesting illustration of the Old Testament narrative. 
Yekin perched on the edge of a steep cliff dominating the 
desert plateau west of the Dead Sea, is one of the most 
conspicuous objects against the sky-line looking from the 
east. To Balaam, on the summit of Nebo, it was in full 
view, and the words of his prophecy thus receive fresh force 
and significance, " strong is thy dwelling place, and thou 
puttest thy nest in a rock." (Sheet XXI.) 

The history of the later Patriarchs Isaac, Jacob, and his 
sons is mainly connected with the district called Negeb or 
" dry " in the Bible. Beersheba, Gerar, Rehoboth, and the 
unknown sites of Esek and Sitnah are^all to be found in 
this part of the country. The reason of this choice of 
country is plainly shown by the survey. The high hills of 
Hebron, with their steep, rocky valleys, rich soil, and 
numerous springs, are suitable for agriculture and the growth 
of the olive and the vine ; the low chalky hills and the 
healthy Beersheba plateau form a pastoral district still 
capable of supporting large flocks and herds. The Hittite 
mountains round Kirjath Arba (or Hebron) were already 
inhabited by an agricultural population in the time of 
Abraham, and the nomadic Hebrews found a suitable home 
in the pasture lands of the Philistines and Amalekites in the 
" dry district," of which the distinctive character remains 
unchanged. Where the Patriarchs once spread their tents 
the great tribes of the Azazimeh and Henajereh now 
pasture their flocks ; and in the mountains of the sons of 
Heth the modern Fellahin lead an agricultural life. 

The site of Gerar was discovered before the survey, but 
was visited by the party from Gaza. There is little to 
describe beyond a gigantic mound on the side of a deep 
broad watercourse in the midst of rolling plains. 

The question of most interest was that of rediscovering 
the wells which Isaac dug again in the valley of Gerar after 



those made by Abraham had been filled in by the Philis- 
tines (Genesis xxv. 18). No great masonry wells such as 
those of Beersheba were discovered ; and, indeed, at Beer- 

Abraham's Well, Beersheba. 

sheba itself the survey party were able to show that the 
masonry once thought to have been the work of Abraham 
dates only from Arab times. It was ascertained, however, 
that a strong underground stream flows down the great 


valley which, rising near Hebron, runs southwards to 
Beersheba, and thence westwards to the sea, passing by the 
site of Gerar. The Arabs camping round this latter site are 
in the habit of making excavations in the bed of the valley, 
from which the water wells up, and which are called by the 
Hebrew name Hiifr^ or " pit." If the wells dug by Abraham 
were of this description they might easily have been filled in 
by the Philistines and reopened by Isaac ; while the loss of 
the sites of Esek and Sitnah is on the same supposition 
naturally explained. 

The later books of the Pentateuch contain but little 
information concerning the topography of Palestine proper. 
A few notes of interest may, however, be here given in 
connection with the survey. 

According to the Law of Moses the scapegoat was set 
free in the wilderness (Leviticus xvi. 9), but at a later period 
an evasion or modification of this command was introduced 
by the Jews ; the goat was conducted to a mountain named 
Tzuk situated at a distance of ten sabbath days' journey, or 
about 6^ English miles from Jerusalem. At this place the 
Judsean desert was supposed to commence, and the man in 
whose charge the goat w^as sent out, while setting him free, 
was instructed to push the unhappy beast down the slope of 
the mountain side, which was so steep as to ensure the 
death of the goat, whose bones were broken by the fall. 
The reason of this barbarous custom was that on one 
occasion the scapegoat returned to Jerusalem after being set 
free, which was considered such an evil omen that its recur- 
rence was prevented for the future by the death of the goat, 
as described in the tract Yoma of the Mishna. 

The distance given between Tzuk and Jerusalem seems to 
indicate a lofty hill top now called el Ahititdr, " the watch- 
tower," which dominates the desert west of Jericho. An 
ancient road leads from Jerusalem to this point, and beside 


the road is an ancient well preserving the name Tzuk in the 
Arab form Sctk. The eastern slope of the hill is steep, and 
falls unbroken to the stony valley beneath. The goat, dashed 
on the rocks, in its fall must inevitably have been destroyed, 
while the mountain may well claim to be considered the 
entrance to the dreary desert which stretches beneath its 
summit.* (Sheet XVIII.) 

Another discovery of some interest was the identification 
by the Survey party of one of the species of deer mentioned 
in the Pentateuch. In the English version the Hebrew 
word Yakhmor is rendered " fallow deer," but this interpre- 
tation has not been accepted by modern scholars. It is now 
proved that the roebuck as well as the fallow deer is to be 
found in the Carmel thickets, and it has been ascertained 
that the old Hebrew name Yakhmor is still applied by the 
natives to the former species — the English roebuck. 

The researches of Egyptologists have thrown considerable 
hght on the condition of Palestine and Syria during the time 
of the Hebrew bondage in Egypt and during the time of the 
Judges. The records of the great conquerors Thothmes 
III and Rameses II give long lists of places situated in the 
Holy Land and in the country of the Hittites. The reason 
why the children of Israel entered Palestine from the east 
after their long sojourn in the Sinaitic desert appears to 
have been that the Egyptian Government was then firmly 
established in the Plain of Sharon. This agrees with the 
Bible account of the Philistine immigration into the southern 
plains from Egypt, and in this, as in so many other instances, 
the records of the Egyptian monuments fully coincide with 
the history of the Old Testament. 

Attempts have been made by Mariette, Brugsch, de Roug^, 
Chabas, and other Egyptologists to identify the towns 

* In 1 88 1 Captain Conder revisited this spot, and found the actual 
name "6'wX'" still existing. 


mentioned in the records of Egyptian conquests in Pales- 
tine. Many have been recovered with certainty, but it was 
not until the Survey had been completed that it became 
possible to study the subject exhaustively. Many existing 
ancient sites not mentioned in the Bible are found to agree 
exactly with the Egyptian lists, and the probable correctness 
of the identifications "thus obtained is evinced by the 
ease with which the lists are shown to preserve a proper con- 
secutive order, while the districts occur along the very line 
of march which we know, from other inscriptions, to have 
have been followed by Thothmes and Rameses. The num- 
ber of identifications proposed within the country covered 
by the Survey may also be contrasted with our almost entire 
ignorance of the topography of the Hittite towns lying north 
of Damascus, of which scarcely six are known out of a total 
of over loo noticed on the monuments. 

The Book of Joshua is the central focus of Biblical topo- 
graphy, and the elucidation of this book has been materially 
advanced by the survey. Several important cities before 
unknown have now been fixed with considerable certitude, 
and the boundaries of the tribes have been traced in a 
satisfactory manner. 

The Survey officers were able to confirm entirely the dis- 
coveries of M. Clermont Ganneau respecting the sites of 
AduUum and Gezer, and to these important towns they add 
the identification of Hazor and Debir, with a large number 
of less famous names. The site of Gilgal, discovered east 
of Jericho by the German traveller Herr Schokke was fixed 
by the surveyors, who found the name Jiljidieh still sur- 
viving. The site of Makkedah fixed by Colonel Warren, 
R.E., at the present village el Mugkdr, " the caves," has 
been adopted by the surveyors, who found that at this site 
only of all the possible sites for Makkedah in the Philistine 
plain do caves {see Joshua x. 22) still exist. The position 




also agrees well with the identification ot the towns 
Gederoth, Beth-Dagon, and Naamah mentioned in the same 
group with Makkedah. (Sheet XVI.) 

The site of Joshua's tomb has long been sought, the iden- 
tification with the rock sepulchre at Tibneh^ north-east of 
Lydda, being unsatisfactory for several reasons. Joshua 
was buried at a place called Timnath Heres, in Mount 
Ephraim, and there is a remarkable consent of Jewish, 
Samaritan, and Christian tradition, traceable from the 
fourth century downwards, which points to a village called 
Kefr Hdris, south of Shechem, as representing the burial 
place of Joshua. Captain Conder ascertained that this 
tradition is still extant among the Samaritans, and although 
it appears little understood by the peasantry, a sacred shrine 
exists outside the village of Kefr Haris to which the name 
Neby Lush' a (no doubt a corruption of Yehusha, or Joshua), 
is applied. Ancient tradition also places the tomb of Nun 
at this same village, and a second sacred place called Neby 



Nun was found close to the supposed site of the tomb ot 

The Priests Eleazar and Phinehas, the successors of 
Aaron, were also buried in Mount Ephraim. The traditional 
site was sought in vain by the great American explorer, 
Robinson, but the surveyors were more fortunate, and have 
visited and minutely described the tombs which according 
to Jewish, Samaritan, and Christian tradition alike, are said 
to be those of the sons of Aaron. The monument of 

Tomb of Phinehas. 

Phinehas appears to be of great antiquity, but that of 
Eleazar has l)cen rebuilt. They are both close to the 
village of Awertah, which the Samaritans identify with the 
Biblical Gibeah Phinehas (Joshua xxiv. 33). (Sheets XIV. 
and XL) 

There is no room in a paper like the present to go very 
deeply into the question of the boundaries of 'the tribes. 
Several important Survey discoveries have been cordially 
accepted by students of the subject, and several very 



imi)ortant modifications have resulted from the survey in 
the Hnes of the borders as formerly laid down. The general 
results of the new investigation appear to be as follows : — 

ist. I'he boundaries are shown to be almost entirely 
natural — rivers, ravines, ridges, and the watershed lines of 
the country. 

2nd. To many of the tribes were assigned distinct dis- 
tricts of the country. Issachar had the great plain, Zebulon 
the low hills north of it. The sons of Joseph held the wild 
central mountains, and Naphtali those of Upper Galilee. 
Dan and Asher occupied the rich Shephelah (or lowland) 
and maritime plain. Simeon inhabited the desert, while 
Judah, holding the largest share of territory, had both 
mountain and Shephelah plain and desert in its portion. 

3rd. The enumeration of towns follows always an order 
roughly consecutive, and all those of one district are men- 
tioned together. 

4th. The proportion ot territory to' population is calcu- 
lated to vary exacdy in accordance with the fertility of the 
district. Taking as a basis the tribe populations (Numbers 
xxvi.), it appears that the ancient populations must have 
been most dense exactly in those districts in which the 
greatest number of ancient ruins is now found, and which 
are still most thickly inhabited. 

Among the most important discoveries concerning the 
tribe boundaries are the following: the waters of Nephtoah 
(Joshua XV, 9) are now placed at the pools of Solomon (so 
called), besides which the spring 'Atari, the Talmudic Etam, 
or Nephtoah, still exists. Formerly they were identified 
with the spring near Lifta,west of Jerusalem, probably Eleph 
of Benjamin ; but this theory renders the topography very 
confused, whereas the new proposal when joined to the new 
identification of Kirjath Jearim makes the boundary line of 
Judah follow a natural watershed. 


On the north-west border of Benjamin, Ataroth Adar 
{ed Ddrieh), and Archi {^Ain Arik) have been recovered in 
exact accordance with the words of the Bible (Joshua 
xviii, 13), which define the position of the former with the 
greatest minuteness. The course of the brook Kanah, 
(Wady Kanah) has now, for the first time, been correctly 
laid down, thus fixing the boundaries of Ephraim and 
Manasseh ; and the discovery of Rabbith and other sites 
has, for the first time, defined the border of Issachar. Many 
new identifications are proposed for the towns of Dan and 
Asher, and a group of places belonging to Napthali has 
been fixed in an apparently satisfactory manner in the 
plateau immediately west of the Sea of Galilee. 

Let us now pass to the elucidation which has been 

effected through the Survey, of the episodical histories 

of the Book of Judges, — the adventures of Caleb, 

Sisera, Gideon, and Samson. 

The site of the city Debir, for the conquest of which the 
valiant Othniel was rewarded by the hand of Achsah, 
Caleb's daughter, had long been sought in vain. Many 
towns of the group surrounding it had been identified. It 
was known to stand in the Negeb, or " dry," country south 
of Hebron, and that certain springs should be found not far 
off. The name signifies "back," suggesting that the city 
stood on a ridge, and Captain Conder was the first to point 
out the probable identity with the ancient \\\\:xgQ DJidheriyeh 
("of the back"), standing in a conspicuous position among 
ancient tombs and quarries close to the other towns of the 
groups, while, at a short distance to the north, a valley was 
discovered full of springs, some on the hill side, some in the 
bed of the ravine, answering in a most satisfactory manner 
to the "upper and lower springs" for which Achsah be- 
sought her father (Judges i. 15). (Sheet XXV.) 



Ed Dhaheriyeh. 

Among the graphic episodes of Hebrew history, there is, 
perhaps, none more picturesque than that relating to 
Gideon's victory over the Midianites. The general scene is 
known, the Valley of Jezreel, now Wady Jalud ; but the 
details of the minute topography are still obscured through 
the loss of many sites east of Jordan. Zererath, and Tabbath, 
Bethabara, Penuel, Nobah, and Karkor (Judges vii. 22 ; 
viii. 11) are still uncertain, and it is only possible to say that 
pursuit extended from some point below Jezreel to the 
mountains east of Jericho. 

The survey throws light on the position of Abel Meholah, 
and Succoth is identified at Tell Der'ala. Suggestions may 
also be offered for the situation of the famous " Spring of 
Trembling " (En Harod), where Gideon selected his band, 
and light may be thrown on the curious notice of a ISIount 
Gilead, west of Jordan, in the same direction. 


hV 7- 



It is clear trom the account given by Jose])hu.s that Harod 
is to be sought not far from Jordan, and Captain Conder 
has suggested that the name 'Ain el Jem'ain, " Spring of the 
two Companies," ajjplying to an abundant stream at the foot 
of the eastern slope of Mount Gilboa, may retain a trace of 
the memory of Gideon's famous selection of three hundred 
tried men, who, as able to satisfy their thirst by water taken 
in the palm of the hand, were indicated as fitter to endure 
the trial of a long and rapid i)ursuit than the remaining 
multitude who drank more freely. 

As regards the name Gilead (Judges vii. 3), it has been 
found that from an early period the name Jalud or Jelden 
has applied to the stream flowing down the Valley of Jezreel, 
and it is suggested that the name Gilead, applying according 
to the passage above cited to a mountain near this stream is 
the true Hebrew form of the modern Arab Jalud and of the 
Jelden which is mentioned in Egyptian documents. 

A site long sought in connection with the history of Sam- 
son, and also with the succeeding episode of the Danite 
conquest of Laish, is that of the Mahaneh Dan, or " Camp- 
mg place of Dan," which was " behind " {i.e., west of) Kir- 
jath Jearim (Judges xviii. 12), and near Zoreah and Eshtaol. 
These indications could not be reconciled with the site 
usually proposed for Kirjath Jearim. It appeared probable 
that the wide corn valley east of Samson's home was the 
camping ground in question, but this is eight miles from 
Kuriet el 'Anab, where Dr. Robinson places the famous city 
Kirjath Jearim, the resting place for so many years of the Ark. 

It has now been pointed out that this latter identification 
rests on no surer basis than a fifth century tradition of 
foreign origin, and wc are left free to seek the " town of 
thickets" elsewhere. The survey identification points to a 
ruin on a thickly covered ridge amongst copses and thickets, 
to which the name 'Erma still applies, corresponding to the 


latest form Arim, which took the place of the original 
Ya'rim or Jearim (Ezra ii. 25). This ruin is distant only 
three miles from the great valley towards which it looks 
down. It lies close to the border of the lower hills and the 
high Judean mountains, and it shows evidence of having 
been an ancient site. 

Close to the same vicinity the survey party fixed the 
situation of Deir Aban, " The Convent of the Stone," which 
St. Jerome identifies with the site of Ebenezer, "The Stone 
of Help," a name so familiar to our ears as that of the 
monument raised by Samuel to commemorate the great 
victory over the Philistines (i Samuel vii. 12), and probably 
marking the final limit of the pursuit. 

The situation of the site seems to render the traditional 
view not improbably correct, for the village stands at the 
mouth of the great valley, down which undoubtedly the 
Philistine hosts were driven, and just at the border which, 
until the time of Solomon, appears to have divided the land 
of the Philistines from the territory actually occupied by the 
sons of Judah. (Sheet XVII.) 

The history of Saul is elucidated by the survey in the re- 
covery of Bezek, the mustering place of Israel (i Samuel 
xi, 8). Jerome and Eusebius place this site, which is known 
to have been near the centre of the country, at a certain 
distance from Shechem on the road to Beisan. At this 
exact distance on the ancient road the ruin Ibz'ik occurs on 
the survey, and this is a case which, if we take into con- 
sideration Mr. Grove's argument on the subject before this 
discovery had been made, may fairly be considered to be 
past dispute the recovery of a long lost site. (Sheet XII.) 

The exact site of the great cliffs Seneh and Bozez, 
which Jonathan climbed with his armour bearer {\ Sanuiel 
xiv. 4), has been pointed out by the surveyors through 
the aid of a remarkably exact description by Josephus of 

II 2 


the site of the I'liilislinc c.un]). The name Scnch, " thorn 
hush," given at a later period to the intervening valley (as 
noticed by Josei)luis) is still recognizable in the present 
Arab name of the same s])lendid gorge Wady Sira'eimt, or 
" The Valley of the Little Thorntree." The name Eozez, 
or ■' shining,"' is explained by the fact that it is that of the 
northern cliff crowned by a mound of white chalky marl, 
presenting a shining and conspicuous aspect, contrasting 
strongly during the daytime with the dark shadow of the 
southern precipice. 

The fixing of this famous s])ot depends to a certain 
extent on the •■ight allocation oi (libeah (of Saul or of 
Benjamin), a site which Dr. Robinson transferred to the 
old beacon i)latform called Tell el Fiil. There is not 
here si)ace for the arguments connected with this question, 
l)ut it may be noted that the Survey shows that Tell el 
I'Til cannot have been the site of an ancient town. 

The romantic adventures of David during llie time of 
his exile and wanderings have received much important 
illustration from the results of the survey. Elah, Sechu, 
Adullam, (iath, Hareth, Hachilah, Sela-ham-Mahlekoth, 
and Choresh Ziph are now pointed out with some degree of 
certainty. Sites for the capital of the Cherethites, Ziklag, 
( I Samuel xxx, 14) and for Nob have been jjroposed. Visiting 
the ruins of the "hold" of .\dullam {'Aid-el-Ma), first 
identified by M. Clermont (lanneau, the surve}-ors Ibund a 
cave close to the niins of the ancient town, a cave suffi- 
ciently large to have been the habitation ot David while his 
band were ^rarrisoning the hold or fortress. Not many 
miles away lies the broad corn vale where the she])herd boy 
slew the giant with one of the smooth pebbles which still 
nil the bed of tile winter torrent tlowing thnjugh the valley. 
The various hidiiij; places to which the future King of 
Israel retired o( < ur in consecutive order, each south of the 



Wady Suweinit (Rock Kiiunion?] 


other, each further irom his native town, each in a country 
more wildly desolate, more difficult of access than that 
surrouncHng the preceding strongholds. The probable site 
of the "Cliff of Divisions," Sela-ham-Mahlekoth, is the pre- 
sent W ady Malfiky south of Hachilah {el Kola/i), and close 
to the site of Maon {M'ahi). Here, in full sight of the 
hunter, but protected by the mighty precipices of the gorge, 
David was rescued by the sudden Philistine invasion which 
compelled Saul to retreat just as the prey appeared to be 
within his grasp (i Samuel xxiii. 26). 

Among the most vexed questions of the later episode of 
David's flight before Absalom was that of the site of Bahu- 
rim (2 Samuel xvi. 5), where the spies lay hid in the cistern 
covered by the corn (2 Samuel xvii. 7). It has been 
assumed that David's flight across Olivet was directed along 
the road leading by Bethany, but Bahurim belonged to 
Benjamin, and was identified by the Jews of the fourth 
century {see the Targum of Jonathan) with the later Almon, 
or Alemeth, lying beside the ancient road which leads 
across the saddle north of the principal summit of the 
Mount of Olives. Captain Conder proposes to accept 
this explaration, for the site of Almon {'Altnlt) is suffi- 
ciently near to the "top of the hill" to render its identity 
with Bahurim possible, while the existence of numerous 
rock-cut cisterns with narrow mouths illustrates the incident 
of the concealment of Jonathan and Ahimaaz, who " came 
to a man's house in Bahurim which had a well in his court, 
whither they went down, and a woman took and spread a 
covering over the well's mouth and spread ground corn 
thereon, and the thing was not known." (Sheet XVII.) 

Among the illustrations of later Jewish history springing 
from the survey, we may notice the discovery of wine presses 
at Jczrcel, where no vines at present exist; the probable 
identification of Teiasir, where the KinL;s of Israel were 


buried, and the indication of a possible site for Megiddo at 
the important ruin Mujedd'a. The topography of the 
apochryphal Book of Judith is now shown to be quite pos- 
sible, and the famous city Bethulia has been located in a 
position answering every known requisite at the modern 
village of MWiilia. A curious but important distinction 
may now be made between Tipsah or Thapsacus, on 
Euphrates, and the Tiphsah where Menahem so cruelly 
avenged himself on rebellious subjects (2 Kings xv. i6j. 
At a time when the King of Israel was a tributary of the 
Assyrian monarch it seemed highly improbable that Hebrew- 
conquests should have extended to Euphrates, and an 
ancient ruin called Tafsah still existing south of Shechem 
seems more probably the site of the rebellious city, which 
refused to submit to the usurper Menahem after his conquest 
of Samaria and Tirzah. (Sheet XIV.) 

The victories and defeats of Judas Maccabseus are in like 
manner illustrated by recent discovery. The site of the 
great battle in which he lost his life has been variously 
placed near Ashdod, and north of Jerusalem. The identiti- 
cation of Eleasa (Ilasa), Berea (Bireh), Berzetho (Bir ez 
Zeit), and Mount Azotus near the last, now show that the 
])osition which he occupied was originally intended to inter- 
cept the retreat of Bacchides by an advance from Modin — 
the native town of the Hasmoneans — on the narrow pass 
through which the road from Samaria to Jerusalem leads in 
the vicinity of 'Ain el Haramiyeh. (Sheet XVII.) 

The site of the famous battle of Adasa in like manner is 
found at a spot where the two main lines of advance on 
Jerusalem from the north join one another; and the first 
campaign of Judas, as is now clearly evident, consisted in the 
defence of the three main passes leading from the north-west, 
the west, and south-west to the Holy City. 

Turning from the Old Testament history to the study of 


the topography of the Gospels, it will he found that the 
survey of Palestine has not been without imi)ortant results 
in illustration of the life of Christ. New information has 
been collected as to Bethabara, Emmaus, /Knon, Sychar, 
Antijjatris, Capernaum, Cana, and Calvary. 

The identification of iMnniaus is another instance of the 
importance of minute examination of the ground. 'J"he 
district where the sui)posed site is found was fairly well 
known, hut the ruin hidden in a well-watered valley 
among gardens of lemon and orange had not previously 
been explored. It was generally recognised by scholars 
that the Emmaus, where Christ supped with two dis- 
ciples, could not be the same as the famous Emmaus 
Nicopolis where Judas conquered the Greeks. 

The latter city was i6o stadia from Jerusalem, but the 
village Emmaus, where Herod's soldiers were settled, was 
both according to St. Luke, and according to Josephus, 
only 60 stadia distant from the capital. The name Emmaus 
is a corruption of the Hebrew KJuDninath, a " hot spring," 
applied to medicinal springs, even when not ot very high 
temperature, as at Emmaus Nicopolis. The ruin which 
has now been found at nearly the exact distance (60 stadia) 
from Jerusalem is called Khaiuasa, thus representing the 
vulgar pronunciation of the Hebrew original. Ancient rock- 
cut sepulchres and a causeway mark the site as being of 
considerable anti([uity, and the vicinity is still remarkable 
for its fine supply of spring water. Among the numerous 
sites proposed for Emmaus there is none which has so 
many argvm'.ents ui its favour as has the new discovery of 
the survey party. (.Sheet XVU.) 

With respect to A\w()W and Sychar, the surveyors have 
only confirmed the views advocated by Dr. Robinson and 
Canon Williams. The existence of " much water " and of 
open ground suitable for the assembly of a crowd has now 


been pointed out in the vicinity of the village SAlim or 
Salem, and of the ruin 'Ainun or ^non. 

Of the numerous sites previously proposed there is no 
other which unites every requisite of name and water su]>i)ly. 
Other ^■Enons exist far from any Salem, and other Salems in 
water districts where no name ^non is found; but in the 
Great Wady Far'ah, which, starting at Shechem, formed the 
north boundary of Judea, in the Jordan valle}', we find a 
site which appears to satisfy every requirement and to agree 
well with the new identification of Bethabara. (Sheet XII.) 

As regards Sychar, Canon Williams has argued in favour 
of the village 'Askar, close to Jacob's well — a hamlet 
apparently overlooked by Robinson. The survey investi- 
gations have shown that the ancient Samaritan name of thi.i 
village closely approached to the Hebrew Sychar. and the 
error first made by the Crusaders, who confounded Sychar 
with Shechem, and which has subsequently been adopted 
by Dr. Robinson, in spite of the evidence of the early 
travellers of the fourth to the seventh centuries, and which 
has found its way into the pages of Canon Farrar's " Life of 
Christ," may now be corrected through the explorations 
which prove the antiquity and ancient name of the village 
'Askar near Jacob's well. (Sheet XI.) 

As regards Bethsaida the evidence is purely negative, no 
trace of the name of the supposed Gahlean Bethsaida 
having been found. The theory that two Bethsaidas 
existed on the shores of the Sea of G.ililee was originated 
by the learned Reland, and has been adopted by many 
authorities. Captain Conder, however, agrees with Renan 
and Robinson in supposing that only one site of that name 
existed, namely, the village afterwards named Julias, east 
of the Jordan and not far from its mouth. 

As regards Crq)ernaum, the authorities are still divided into 
two parties. Captain Conder nnd Lieutenant Kitchener 



agree with Robinson, Renan, and many others in jilacing 
this city at the ruin Minyeh (the "town of the Minim" or 
Christian heretics who are called in the Talmud " Sons of 
Capernaum "). Colonel Wilson, R.E., has, however, clearly 
shown that from the fourth century down. Tell Hum has 
been the traditional site of this town, and assumes that the 
Christian tradition is correct. Much still remains to be 
done to elucidate this subject ; careful levels along a line of 
aqueducts are required, and excavations at Minyeh are very 

.> - 

"1 V > •■/- 

Colonnade at Samaria. 

A site which, though not scriptural, was of much import- 
ance for the understanding of the topography of the Sea of 
Galilee, was recovered by Lieutenant Kitchener in the 
modern Sinn-en-Nabra, the ancient Sinnabris. This dis- 
covery supports the generally received identification of the 
important town of Tarichea (Kerak), which owing to a mis- 


conception has been placed on recent maps north instead 
of south of Tiberias. 

The question of the boundaries of Samaria in the time ot 
Christ is one not a Httle important to the understanding of 
His journeys through Pertea. By the recovery of Anuath 
{'Aina), Borceos (Berkit), Antipatris, Beth-Rima, and other 
places, we have been able for the first time to lay down the 
line of the border between Judaea and Samaria with con- 
siderable accuracy of detail, and to show the necessity of 
the journey across Jordan in passing from Galilee to 
Jerusalem (Mark x. i ). 

Without entering into the famous controversy as to the 
site of Calvary, it should be noticed that an important piece 
of novel information bearing on the question has been 
collected during the course of the survey. The place of 
execution used by the Jews before the destruction of 
Jerusalem, and called in the Talmud Beth-has-Sekilah, or 
the " house of stoning," is still shown by their modern 
descendants outside the Damascus gate north of the city. 
To Christians it is known as the cliff of Jeremiah's grotto, 
in consequence of a tradition which is only traceable as 
far back as the fifteenth century. The fact that a precipice 
is mentioned (in the Talmudic account of the punishment 
of stoning) as existing at the place of execution appears 
to confirm the tradidon. Ihis spot has according to 
modern authorities always been outside Jerusalem, and some 
travellers think they have observed a skull-like formation 
in the hill-top above the cave such as the early fathers 
often attribute to Golgotha. That Christ was executed 
according to Roman custom rather than the Jewish is 
certain ; but there is no reason to suppose that Jerusalem 
possessed two places of execution at the time— the con- 
servatism of the east would indeed point to an opposite 
conclusion. If the Jewish tradition be trustworthy we see 


ill tlic site llnis recovered an identification which possesses 
ill a high degree a claim on our attention, as one of the 
most important that can be expected in Palestine. 

'J'he discoveries thus far described have been mainly 
topographical, as must be naturally expected from the 
character of the work undertaken. The survey party, 
however, enjoyed unusual opportunities for the study of 
the manners and customs of the native peasantry and of 
the Bedawin, in districts where a Frank had sometimes 
never been seen before ; and from this intimate inter- 
course many interesting results were obtained in illus- 
tration of the manners and customs of the lower classes 
as described in the Bible. A detailed account of many 
of these discoveries will be found in the last chapters of 
"Tent Work in Palestine," published by the Committee, 
which are devoted to the description of various nation- 
alities to be found in Syria. 

The anticjuity of the native peasant stock is evidenced 
both by their language and by the peculiarities of their 
religion. Their pronunciation of many letters is archaic, 
and approaches much closer to the Aramaic or to the 
Hebrew than to modern Arabic. There are also many pure 
Hebrew- words in use among the Fellahin which are uiiiiitL-l- 
ligible to the inhabitants of towns who use the modern 
Arabic words instead. The worship of Mukams or 
" Shrines " among the peasantry is also intimately connected 
with the old worshi[) of trees and high j)laces by the 
Canaanites, although the traditions attaching to these sacred 
places are traceable to Crusading, Byzantine, or Moslem 
origin, as well as in other cases to an older indigenous source. 

In manners, customs, and dress, the peasantry recall the 
incidental notices of the same population in i)re-Christian 
times. The " round tires like the moon," against which 
Isaiah declaimed, are still worn by the women of Samaria. 



Like Jezebel, they still paint their faces ; like Elijah, the 
men still gird up their loins. The " corner of the field " is 
still left for the poor, and a tithe of corn for the Levite (or 
Derwish). The harvest customs and methods of tillage are 
unchanged ; the olives are still beaten down with a rod. 
These are but single instances of the numerous scriptural 
expressions which are now illustrated by the customs of the 
Syrian peasantry. The nomadic life of the early patriarchs 
is in the same way illustrated by the manners of the Bedawin 
of the deserts, and, as above stated, the settled and pastoral 
districts retain the same relative position as in earlier times. 

Tell es Safl (Cath ?). 

To sum up, therefore, as to the value of this Survey 
to the world at large. Not onXy has there been a very- 
great extension of the known sites, but, for the fust 


time, the natural features of the countn'liavc been laid 
down in exact detail, so that the reader of the Bible 
may now follow step by step the events of which he 
reads. It is no longer with him a cjuestion as to which 
route might have been followed ; he sees which route 
must have been followed, he need no longer, to 
arrive at the true distances from place to place, follow 
Robinson, Guerin, and the rest, in their tedious " two 
hours to the east, then an hour and a quarter to the 
north-east," and so forth ; he can simpl\- take a com- 
pass and measure the exact distance. ]\Iore than 
this, he can follow on the map the route which must 
have been taken in any expedition. If again he 
will turn from the map to the memoirs he will learn 
the character of the countr}- and its fertility, its 
ancient vineyards, terraced hills, and olive presses, its 
modern forests, its fountains — in one sheet alone of 
the map there are 200 fountains, — and its flora. 
Again, if he wishes to study the history of the country- 
subsequent to that of the Bible, he will find how one 
ruin stands upon another, and that upon an older ruin 
still ; so that even in Joshua's time tlicre were alread}- 
ruins in the land ; how you ma}- find the mosque built 
from the materials of the church, the church from 
those of the synagogue, or the Turkish fort from the 
Crusading castle, the castle from the monastery, the 
monastery from the Roman walls. 

It ma}- in short, be fairl}- claimed for the Surve}- of 


Western Palestine that nothing has ever been done fo7- 
the illustration and right nndersta7iding of tJie historical 
portions of the Old and Nezv Testament, since the 
translation into the vulgar tongue, zvhich may be com- 
pared with this great ivork. The officer whose name 
is especially associated with these maps and memoirs 
has made himself a name which will last as long as 
there are found men and women to read and study 
the Sacred Books. 




In the autumn of the year 1873 the Committee found 
themselves able to secure the services of M. Cler- 
mont Cianncau for an archaeological expedition. 
He received general instructions to look about him 
and observe and report upon whatever he saw. He 
undertook to work for the Socict)- for one )'car. He 
was accompanied b}' M. Lecomte for the purpose of 
executing architectural drawings. 

The following are the principal discoveries which 
rewarded his labours : — 

1. The ancient Jewish cemetery of Jaffa. One of 

the epitai)hs in marble is now in the Socict}''s 

2. The identification of a head in marble found in 

Jerusalem with the head of Hadrian's statue 
set up on the site of the Holy of Holies. A 
cast of the head is in our possession. It has 
been figured in the (2iiartcrly Stattinciit, and 
in the Memoirs, p. 207, 1874. 


3. The finding and deciphering of inscriptions on 

certain Juda;o Christian sarcophagi on the 
Mount of Offence. It is remarkable that 
these inscriptions, which were discovered 
close to the Bethany road, contain the name 
of Lazarus, Martha, and Simon. They in- 
clude : Judah Salome, wife of Judah ; Judah, 
the scribe ; Simeon the son of Jesus 
(Bar-Jeshuo) ; Martha, daughter of Pasach ; 
Eleazer (of which Lazarus is the Greek form), 
son of Nathan ; Judah, son of Hananiah ; 
Salam Isim, daughter of Simon the Priest ; 

4. Proposed identification of the Stone of Bohan 

with the Hajar el Asbah. (Memoirs, Western 
Survey, Vol. IIL, p. 199.) 

5. The discovery (simultaneously with Mr. C. F. 

Tyrwhitt Drake) of the great forgery of the 
so-called Moabite inscriptions. {Qiiartcr/y 
Statement, 1869, 1874, and 1878.) 

6. The indication of the " taille mediaevale," or 

mediaeval method of dressing stones for 

This discovery is especially useful in a country 
where there are ruins of every age, and where a 
question of identification may turn upon the date of a 

7. Finding of an ancient cemetery north of the city. 




Section, cm A£.C. 


feet 10 £■ 

1 I I 1 I 


i - -■ 




Tomb of Simon the Just. 

8. Examination of many sepulchral chambers. 
g. Examination of a great series of rock-cut 

chambers west of the Ecce Homo Church. 
lO. Recovery of Adullam. 
The site of Adullam and its caves, one of the most 



interesting sites of the Holy Land, had been variously 
placed. M. Ganneau has found the very name in a 
somewhat altered form, Aid-el-ma, attached to a 
site which singularly corresponds with the necessities 
of the narrative, and seems to make David's history 
at the period connected with Adullam clear and 
intelligible. (Memoirs, Western Survey, Vol. III. 
p. 361.) 

El Medyeh. 

II. Drawings by M. Lecomte (over a thousand 

in number) of monuments and places visited 

by M. Ganneau. These represent among 

other things, architectural work in the Dome 

of the Rock and in the Haram Area. 

I 2 


12. Greek, Hebrew and Phoenician inscriptions. 

13. The stone of Bcthphage. Figured in the 

Quarterly Statement, p. 51, 1878. 

14. The vase of Bezetha. 

This beautiful and unique vase found by M. Ganneau 
lying shattered on the rock was completely put 
together, and is now in the Society's office at i, Adam 
Street. Its date is said to be about that of Herod. 
The ornamentation is pagan. 

15. Examination of the ruins of Medyeh, the 

Maccabaean Modin. (Memoirs, Western 

Survey, Vol. H., p. 341.) 
M. Ganneau's letters appeared in the Quarterly 
Statement of 1874. His collections are all in the 
Society's exhibition now at South Kensington. Among 
previous discoveries made by this explorer when not 
connected with the Society may be mentioned, — 

1. His discovery of the stone of Herod's Temple 

with the Greek inscription, word for word as 
given by Josephus. 

2. His .securing of the large fragments of the 

Moabite stone. 

3. His theory of what was done with the veil of 

the Temple. 

4. Examination of the ancient tombs existing 

under the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 
These have also been planned by Sir 
Charles Wilson. 




The present condition of our knowledge as regards 
Eastern Palestine was described in the year 1880 [see 
Quarterly Statement, Januar}-, 1881), before the 
survey was commenced. 

It resembles very much that of Western Palestine when the 
survey was first commenced. The country has been visited 
by many travellers who have described its general features 
and many of its ruined cities. Among these travellers may 
be mentioned Burckhardt, Seetzen, Wetzstein, Irby and 
Mangles, Lord Lindsay, De Vogiie, Waddington, De 
Luynes, Porter, Costigan, Lynch, Molyneux, Robinson, 
Cyril Czraham, Thomson, Tipping, Tristram, MacGregor, 
Eaton, Zeller, Wilson and Anderson, Warren, Burton, 
Drake, Palmer, Socin, Steever, Merrill, Klein, Freshfield 
and Oliphant. 

Our own expeditions under Lieutenant Warren and those 
of the American Exploration Society east of Jordan have 
made reconnaissances which will facilitate the work now 

The country to be surveyed comprises the following dis- 
tricts or provinces : — 

I. Bashan, the "level" land, which extends from tlie 
southern slopes of Mount Hermon to Gilead on the south, 
the southern frontier being the River Hieromax, now called 


the Nahr Yarmuk or the Sheriat el Mandhur. Bashan is 
subdivided into : — 

a. Jetur (Itursea), now called Jedur, of which Philip 
was tetrarch (Luke iii. i), named after Jetur, the 
son of Ishmael (Genesis xxv. 15, 16). It was 
conquered by the Manassites (i Chronicles v. 
18-23), who lived there until the Captivity. This 
country contains the southern and eastern slopes 
of Hermon and the table-land eastward. 

h. The district named after the city of Golan (Gaula- 
nitis) now called Jaulan. This is a table-land 
rising by terraces from the Jordan Valley. The 
city (Joshua xx, 8), which gave a name to the dis- 
trict, has yet to be identified. Dr. Porter says 
that there are a hundred and twenty-seven ruined 
towns in it, among them the ancient towns of 
Aphek, Gergesa, Bethsaida, Hippos, Gamala and 

c. The Hauran (Auranitis), a level land, with the ruins 
of 150 towns, the buildings of which are still re- 
maining in good preservation, many of them with 
roofs, doors, and window shutters, all of stone and 
still in their places. A vast number of Greek and 
Roman inscriptions have been collected in this 
district. Those found by MM. de Vogiie and 
Waddington have been published in de Vogue''s 
magnificent work on the architecture and archae- 
ology of Central Syria. 

d. The Argob or Trachonitis, now called el Lejah, 
which is, correctly, a part of the Hauran. This 
formed part of the kingdom of Og (Deuteronomy 
iii. 4, 5), when it held threescore cities "fenced 
with high walls." Remains of more than sixty 
cities have been found here, but it has been 


but little visited of late, and never completely 
e. East of the Hauran is the district of Batansa con- 
taining the Hill of Bashan. This country is that 
of the Maachathites (Deuteronomy iii. 14; Joshua 
xii. 5 ; 2 Samuel x. 6 ; i Chronicles xix. 7). 

II. The land of Gilead, including territory allotted to 
the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and part of Manasseh, extend- 
ing southwards as far as the river Arnon. 

III. Moab, whose principal cities are Dibon (where the 
Moabite stone was found), Rabbath Moab, and Kir Haraseth. 

The following are some of the Biblical events connected 
with this part of the country : — 

The battles of the "four kings against five" (Genesis xiv. 
1-12); the destruction of the Cities of the Plain; the 
meeting of Jacob and Laban ; that of Jacob and Esau ; 
Jacob's vision at Mahanaim ; the wrestling at Penuel ; the 
conquest of Sihon by Moses ; the battle of Edrei ; the 
" Pisgah View ; " the death and burial of Moses ; the story 
of Balak and Baalam ; the division of the land among the 
two and a-half tribes ; the establishment of the three Leviti- 
cal cities ; the wars of the Manassites and Gadites with the 
Hagarites ; the pursuit of Gideon ; the revolt and victories 
of Jephthah ; the wars of David against Ammon ; the 
flight of SauFs sons, and that of David ; the campaigns of 
Ahab and his son Joram with their allies, Jehoshaphat and 
Ahaziah ; the wars with Moab ; the birth of Elijah ; the in- 
vasion of Tiglath Pilezer and of Hazael, and the captivity 
of the tribes. 

Here is the River Arnon, the boundary between Moab 
and the Amorites, on whose banks stood Aroer, and the 
mysterious city " in the midst of the river." Here are 
Heshbon, the capital of Sihon, not far from Jahaz, where 


that king met with his overthrow ; Rabbath Ammon, the 
one city belonging to the Ammonites, besieged by Joab, and 
taken by David ; Ramoth Gilead, which played so great a 
part in the wars between the SjTians and the kingdom of 
Judah ; Gadara, whose modern inhabitants, like the de- 
moniacs of the miracle which associates the city with the 
New Testament, dwell in the ancient tombs ; Bcthsaida 
Julias, the scene of the miracle of Mark vi. 31-53; 
Coesarea Philippi, the northernmost point of Our Lord's 
wanderings, where Herod built his temple of white marble j 
Damascus, with the rivers Pharphar and Abana ; the Bozrah 
of Jeremiah xlviii. 24 ; the river Jabbok, where Esau and 
Jacob met, the boundary of the Ammonites ; Machserus, 
where John the Baptist was beheaded ; Callirrhoe, whither 
Herod the Great repaired in hopes of recovery from his 
disease. On this side are also the great palace of Hyrcanus 
(Arak el Emir) ; the unfinished palace of Chosroes the 
Second (Mashita) ; the fortress of Kerak, where Mesha 
sacrificed his son ; and Dibon. We must not forget, also, 
that it was on this side that the Christian Church found 
a refuge during the troubled times of the siege by Titus, 

The expedition for the survey of Eastern Palestine 
reached Beyrout on the 29th March, 1881, and having 
to wait for instruments. Captain Conder, with whom 
was Lieutenant Mantell, R.E., made a survey north 
and discovered (see p. i ^^'j) the long lost Kadesh of 
the Hittites. After visiting Baalbek, Homs and other 
places, the party moved southward with the intention 
of continuing the survey in the south. T)rc was 
examined, and the "Egyptian Harbour" was dis- 
covered and traced. The ancient T)'rian cemetery 

\7ofacf p. 137. 






> \ 
\ \ 








"1 "■- \ 

'kSr el rAHUD 





Solid LiKti Hen A A 

Dotted lines Old £r- A 


was found, a probable site was discovered for the 
Temple of Melkath, and the mounds of Neby Mashuk 
and Tell Habish were examined. 

After some delays, caused by the unsettled state of 
the country. Captain Conder was able to cross the 
Jordan and begin the survey. It was hoped that the 
old firman, with which the Society had worked for so 
long, would continue to be respected. The hope, 
however, proved to be ill-founded. Within a month 
after their arrival Captain Conder received a 
peremptory message from the Governor of El Salt, 
that the survey could not be allowed to be carried on, 
and that he must take his party back again. By 
interposing delays. Captain Conder succeeded in 
getting ten weeks' work in the country, and when he 
was at length obliged to return, it was with laden 
hands, for he had surveyed 500 square miles, and 
brought back hundreds of drawings, with the materials 
for a whole volume of memoirs. 

Among the more important results were : — 

I. Identifications. 

1. The Field of Zophim (Numbers xxiii. 14.) 

2. The Ascent of Luhith (Jeremiah xlviii. 5). 

3. Jazer (Joshua xiii. 25). 

4. Sibmah (Numbers xxxii. 3, 38). 

5. Minnith (Judges xi. 33). 

6. Bamoth Baal. 

7. Baal Peor. 



II. Ancient Monuments. 

I. Cromlechs, and other rude stone monuments. 
Of these hundreds were found and sketched. 

Cromlech near Hesbon. 

They occur for the most part in groups, and in 
connection with some are certain curious rock- 
cut chambers. 
2. Ruins. The most important are those of 
Amman and Arak-El-Emir. At the former 


place Captain Conder sketched and planned a 
remarkable building, hitherto called Byzantine, 
which now turns out to be Persian. Two 
hundred ruins were examined. 

3. Names. Six hundred names were collected. 

4. Examination of Sites. The principal sites 
examined were those of Heshbon Elealah, 
Medeba, Baal Meon, Nebo, and Pisgah. 

Every attempt to obtain a firman has hitherto 
proved unavailing, so that the survey of Eastern 
Palestine would seem impossible. However, within 
the last few months we have been able, through the 
accident of survey work being required for other 
purposes, to get a few hundred miles in addition, 
which will be added to our map. And if, as seems 
probable, we do not get our firman we shall lose no 
opportunity of carrying on the survey by small pieces, 
and as occasion offers. 




The Geological Survey laid down in our original 
prospectus has been accomplished by Prof. Edward 
Hull, F.R.S. 

The expedition was undertaken in the winter of 
1883-4. The party consisted of Prof. Hull, and 
his son, Dr. Gordon Hull. Major Kitchener accom- 


panied the party in order to make a survey of the 
Wady Arabah. He was assisted by Mr. George 
Armstrong. Mr. E. Chichester Hart, formerly 
naturahst to Sir George Nares's voyage to the Arctic 
regions, went with them as naturalist, but at his own 
expense, and Mr. Reginald Laurence also accompanied 
the party at his own charges. 

The results of the expedition have been thus 
summed up by Prof. Hull : — 

1. A complete triangulation of the district lying between 
the mountains of Sinai and the Wady el Arabah, together 
with that of the Wady el Arabah itself, bounded on the 
west by the tableland of the Tih, and on the east by the 
mountains of Edom and Moab. This was entirely the work 
of Major Kitchener, and his assistant Mr. G. Armstrong 
(formerly Sergeant-Major R.E.). An outline survey along 
the line of route was also made, and has been laid down in 
MS. on a map prepared by Mr. Armstrong on the same 
scale as the reduced Map of Palestine, viz., | inch to one 
statute mile, or tgsWo- 

2. Some important rectifications of the borders of the 
Salt Sea, and of the Gulf of Akabah, were also made. 

3. A geological reconnaissance along the line of route 
through the districts of Sinai, Akabah, and the Wady el 
Arabah, including the following particulars : — 

(rt) Collections of fossils from the Wady Nasb lime- 
stone ; additions to those already made by Mr. Bauerman 
and Colonel Sir C. W. Wilson. These fossils (which are 
being examined by Prof Sollas) go to show that this 
limestone is of Carboniferous age. The Wady Nasb lime- 
stone was found to continue over a considerable region 
north of Mount Sinai, and was again recognised amongst 


the mountains of Moab on the east side of the Salt Sea in 
the Wady el Hessi. As this limestone rests upon a red 
sandstone foundation, this latter may also be assumed to be 
of the same geological age, and therefore cannot be the 
representative of the " Nubian Sandstone " of Rosiere, 
which (as Prof Zittel has shown) is of Cretaceous age. 
I propose to call this formation, therefore, " the Desert 
Sandstone." It forms, with the limestone, a strip along the 
borders of the ancient rocks of Paleozoic, or Archaean, age, 
and is about 400 feet in average thickness ; the base is 
generally a conglomerate. 

ip) Above the Wady Nasb limestone is another sand- 
stone formation, of which a large portion of the Debbet er 
Ramleh is formed. It is laid open in the Wadies Zelegah, 
Biyar, &c., and along the mountains of Edom and Moab. 
Out of this rock have been hewn the ancient temples, 
tombs, and dwellings of Petra and the Wady Musa. It 
stretches along the southern escarpment of the Tib plateau, 
and forms the base of the limestone cliffs along the margin 
of the Wady el Arabah as far north as Nagb es Salni. This 
sandstone formation is soft, red, or beautifully variegated. 
It is (in all probability) of Cretaceous age, and, if so, the 
true representative of the " Nubian Sandstone " of Russeger. 
It will thus be seen that there are two red sandstone 
formations, one below, the other above the Carboniferous 
limestone of the Wady Nasb. 

{c) The geological structure of the Wady el Arabah was 
examined throughout a distance of 120 miles from south to 
north. That it has been hollowed out along the line of a 
main fault (or line of fracture and displacement) ranging 
from the eastern shore of the Salt Sea to that of the Gulf of 
Akabah, was clearly determined. The position of the fault 
itself was made out and laid down on the map* in six or 

* The map used was an enlarged plan from Smith and Groves' 
Ancient Atlas (J. Murray). 


seven places ; one being about ten miles north of Akabah, 
another near the watershed, in which places the limestone 
of the Tih (Cretaceo-nummulitic) is faulted against the old 
porphyritic and metamorphic rocks, as illustrated by the 
section across the Arabah Valley, given in a previous 
page (p. 77). 

There are numerous parallel and branching faults along 
the Arabah Valley, but there is one leading fracture running 
along the base of the Edomite Mountains, to which the 
others are of secondary importance: this may be called 
" the Great Jordan Valley fault." The relations of the 
rocks in The Ghor and Jordan Valley have already been 
shown by Lartet, Tristram, Wilson, and others, to indicate 
the presence of a large fault corresponding with the line of 
this remarkable depression, and the author considers the 
fracture he has observed in the Arabah Valley to be con- 
tinuous with that of the Jordan. 

{d) The ancient rocks which form the floor either of the 
Desert, or Nubian, Sandstone formations, consist of granite, 
gneiss, porphyries, and more rarely of metamorphic schists 
— together with volcanic rocks, consisting of agglomerates, 
tuffs, and beds of felspathic trap. The author is disposed 
to concur with Dr. Lartet in considering the gneissose and 
granitoid rocks to be of Archaean (or Laurentian) age, as 
they are probably representative of those of Assouan in 
Upper Egypt, which Prof. Sir J. W. Dawson has recently 
identified with those of this age.* The granites and 
porphyries are traversed by innumerable dykes of porphyry 
and diorite both throughout the Sinaitic mountains and 
those of Edom and Moab ; and the author considers it 
probable that the volcanic rocks which are largely repre- 
sented along the bases of Mount Hor, and of Jebel es 

* Dawson has shown, however, that there are two metamorphic 
series in Upper Egypt. Geol. Magazine^ October, 1884. 


Somrah near Es Safieh, are contemporaneous with these 
dykes. As far as the author was able to observe, none of 
these dykes i)enetrate the Desert or Nubian Sandstones, 
and, if so, tliey may be considered of pre-Carboniferous age. 
The upper surface of the ancient rocks was originally 
extremely uneven, having been worn and denuded into 
ridges and hollows, previous to the deposition of the Desert 
Sandstone ; over this irregular floor the sandstone strata 
were deposited. 

4. The occurrence of terraces of marl, gravel, and silt, 
through which the ravines of existing streams have been cut 
at an elevation (according to aneroid determination) of 
about 100 feet above the level of the Mediterranean, was 
taken to show that the level of the Salt Sea (Bahr Lut) at 
one time stood. about 1,400 feet higher than at present- 
These beds of marl were first observed at the camp at 'Ain 
Abu Beweireh ; they contain blanched shells of the genera 
Melanopsis and Melanin. The beds of marl were observed 
to be enclosed by higher ground of more ancient strata in 
every direction except towards the north, where they gently 
slope downwards towards the borders of The Ghor, and 
become incorporated with strata of the 600 feet terrace. 

5. The author concurs with Dr. Lartet in thinking that 
the waters of the Jordon Valley did not flow down into the 
Gulf of Akabah after the land had emerged from the sea ; 
the disconnection of the inner and outer waters was very 
ancient, dating back to Miocene times. 

6. The occurrence of beds of ancient lakes — consisting 
of coarse gravel, sand, and marl — amongst the mountains of 
Sinai, and in the Wady el Arabah, where now only waterless 
valleys occur, taken in connection with other phenomena, 
have impressed the author with the conviction that the 
former climatic conditions of Arabia Petrsa were very 
different from those of the present day. Such terraces have 


been observed by Dr. Post in the Wady Feiran, and Colonel 
Sir vV. Wilson in the Wady Solaf, and by the author in the 
Wadies Gharandel, Goweisah, Hamr, Solaf and Es Sheikh or 
Watiyeh. It would appear that, at a period coming down 
probably to the prehistoric, a chain of lakes existed amongst 
the tortuous valleys and hollows of the Sinaitic peninsula. 
The Gypseous deposits of Wady Amarah and 'Ain Hawareh 
are considered to be old lake beds, and Mr. Bauerman has 
observed remains of fresh-water shells {LymtKBa truncatula) 
and a species of Pisidium in "lake or river alluvium " of 
the Wadies Feiran and Es Sheikh {Quart. Jour. Geol. 
Soc., Vol. XXV., p. 35.) 

7. The author considers it probable that these ancient 
Sinaitic lakes belong to an epoch when the waters of the 
Mediterranean and of the Red Sea rose to a level consider- 
ably higher than at present ; and when, consequently, there 
was less fall for the inland waters in an outer direction. The 
evidence of a submergence, to a depth of a least 200 feet, is 
abundantly clear in the occurrence of raised beaches or 
sea beds with shells, corals, and crinoids, of species still 
living in the adjoining waters. The raised beaches of the 
Mediterranean and Red Sea coasts have been observed by 
the officers of the Ordnance Survey, and by Fraas, Lartet, 
Schweinfurth, Post, and others. They were observed by 
members of the Expedition at the southern extremity of the 
Wady el Arabah, and shells and corals were found round the 
camp of the 3rd December at an elevation of about 130 feet 
above the Gulf of Akabah. 

These ancient sea beds are represented in the Egyptian 
area by the old coast-line of 220 feet, discovered by Fraas 
along the flanks of the Mokattam Hills above Cairo, and 
recently described by Schweinfurth. (Uber die geol. 
schichtungliederung de. Mokattam bei Cairo ; Zeit. d. 
Deuts. Geol. Gcssel, 1883.) The period in which the sea 



rose to this level may be stated in general terms as the 
Pliocene, but it continued downwards till more recent times ; 
and the author believes that at the time of the Exodus the 
Gulf of Suez reached as far as the Great Bitter Lake 
{Quarterly Statement^ April, 1884). It is scarcely necessary 
to observe that throughout the longer portion of this period 
of submergence Africa was disconnected from Asia. 

8. The Miocene period is not represented by any strata 
throughout the district traversed by the Expedition. The 
author considers that in this part of the world the Miocene 
period was one of elevation, disturbance, and denudation of 
strata, not of accumulation. To this epoch he refers the 
emergence of the whole of the Palestine, and of the greater 
part of the Sinaitic areas, from the sea^ in -whiih the 
Cretaceo-nummulitic limestone formations were deposited. 
To the same e{)och also he considers the faulting and 
flexuring of the strata is chiefly referable \ and notably the 
formation of the great Jordanic line of fault, with its branches 
and accompanying flexurings of the strata — which are very 
remarkable along the western sides of The Ghor. These 
phenomena were accompanied and followed by extensive 
denudation, and the production of many of the principal 
physical features of the region referred to. 

9. The evidences of a Pluvial period throughout this 
region are to be found (a) in the remains of ancient lake 
beds, {b') in the existence of terraces in the river valleys, 
(^) in the great size and depth of many valleys and gorges, 
now waterless except after severe thunderstorms, and {d) in 
the vastly greater size of the Salt Sea (or Dead Sea), which 
must have had a length of nearly 200 English miles from 
north to south, at the time when its surface was at a higher 
level than that of the Mediterranean at the present day. 
The author considers that this Pluvial period extended from 
the Pliocene through the post-Pliocene (or Glacial) down 


to recent times. As it is known, from the observations of 
Sir J. D. Hooker, Canon Tristram, and others, that 
perennial snow and glaciers existed in the Lebanon during 
the Glacial epoch, the author infers that the adjoining 
districts to the south of the Lebanon must have had a 
climate approaching that of the British Isles at the present 
day ; and that, in a region of which many parts are over 
2,000 feet in elevation, there must have been abundant 
rainfall. Even when the snows and glaciers of the Lebanon 
had disappeared, the effects of the colder climate which was 
passing away may be supposed to have remained for some 
time, and the vegetation to have been more luxuriant down 
to within the epoch of human habitation. The author's 
views generally coincide with those of Theobold Fisher, as 
extended by him to a mucii wider area (Studien iiber das 
Klima der Mediterranean Lander," Peterman's Mittheilun- 
gen, 1879). 

10. The author considers that there a^e reasons for 
concluding that the outburst of volcanic phenomena in 
North-Eastern Palestine in tiie region of the jaulan and 
Hauran, &c., has an indirect connection with the formation 
of the great Jordan Sea of the Pluvial period. The presence 
of water in considerable volume is now recognised as 
necessary to volcanic activity, and the author submits that 
this interdependence was brought about when the waters of 
the Lake stretched as far north as the little Lake of Huleh. 
These waters, under a pressure of several hundred feet, 
would find their way into the interior of the earth's crust 
along the lines of the great Jordan Valley fnult, and of its 
branches, and thus supply the necessary "steam power" for 
volcanic action. The period when the volcanoes of the 
Jaulan and Hauran were in action ap])ears to have ranged 
from the Pliocene through the post-Pliocene to the beginning 
of the recent ; when, concurrently with the faUing away and 

K 2 


partial drying up of the waters of the great inland sea, the 
volcanic fires became extinct and the outpourings of basaltic 
lava ceased to flow. 

If these views are correct, it would seem that during the 
(}lacial e}^och, Palestine and Southern Syria presented an 
aspect very different from the present. The Lebanon 
throughout the year was snow-clad over its higher elevations, 
while glaciers descended into some of its valleys. The 
region of the Hauran, lying at its Southern base, was the 
site of several extensive volcanoes, while the district around, 
and the Jordon Valley itself, was invaded by floods of lava. 
A great inland sea, occupying the Jordon Valley, together 
with the existing comparatively restricted sheets of water, 
extended from Lake Huleh on the north, to a southern 
margin near the base of Samrat Piddan in the Wady el 
Arabah of the present day, while numerous arms and bays 
stretched into the glens and valleys of Palestine and Moab 
on either hand. Under such climatic conditions, we may 
feel assured a luxuriant vegetation decked with verdure the 
hills and vales of Palestine and Arabia Petrsea to an extent 
far beyond that of the present ; and amongst the trees, as 
Sir J. D. Hooker has shown, the cedar may have spread far 
and wide. 

II. The author has not thought it necessary to go into 
the question of the origin of the salinity of the Salt Sea, as 
this question is now fully understood. He is obliged to 
differ witii Dr. Lartet in his view of the origin of the salt 
mountain, Jebel Usdum,* which he (the author), as also 
Mr. Hart, regards as a portion of the bed of the Salt Sea, 
when it stood about 600 feet above its present level. This 
level exactly corresponds to that of the terraces, both along 
vhe south and east of the Ghor, formed of lacrustine 

* Lartet regards the strata of this mountain as belonging to the 
NuTQmulitic period. 


materials. The upper surface of Jebel Usdum was examined 
by Messrs. Hart and Laurence, of the Expedition, but 
previous explorers had considered the sides inaccessible. 

12. The author concurs with previous writers in con- 
sidering that the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods succeeded 
each other over this region (at least as far as tne marine 
deposits are concerned) without any important physical 
disturbances ; in consequence of which the limestone 
formations of these periods are in physical conformity and 
are generally incapable of separation without prolonged and 
detailed examination. It seems probable, however, that 
while the Nummulitic limestones predominate in the 
Egyptian and Nubian areas, those of the Cretaceous period 
were more fully developed over the area of Arabia Petra^a 
and Palestine. 

13. A complete series of meteorological observations, 
consisting of maxima and minima readings of the thermo- 
meter, and levels of the barometer, were made by Mr. 
Laurence, and will ai)pear in the scientific work to follow. 




From time to time some special piece of work has 
been taken in hand by the Committee as opportunity 

Thus, among other journeys, may be mentioned : — 

1. Mr. Greville Chester's visit to the Island of 

This curious place, the ancient Aradus, has been 
very seldom visited. Mr. Chester's account of it will 
be found in the Quarterly Statement, p. 218, 1875. 

2. Mr. Greville Chester's visit to the cities of the 
Delta and the Lacus Serbonicus. 

This journey will be found in the Quarterly State 
T'lcnt, p. 133, 1880. 

3. Warren's Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon. 

This was a summer visit to escape the great heats 
of Jerusalem. The stay in the hills was utilized by 
sketching and planning a great number of the ruined 
Temples, the summit of Hcrmon, &c. 

4. Captain Condcr's discovery of Kadesh of the 
Ilittitcs. Quarterly Statement, s.^'^i and 1882. 


The following is Captain Conder's own account of 
this discovery : — 

Before detailing our observations on the spot, it will 
perhaps be best briefly to explain the reasons why special 
interest attaches to this site. The conquest of the great 
eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties of Egyptian kings, in 
the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries before Christ, extended 
over the greater part of Palestine and Syria, and even as 
far as Asia Minor. Amongst their most formidable 
opponents were the Kheta, a light-coloured hairless people, 
wearing high caps and dresses somewhat similar to those of 
the Assyrians, but specially distinguished by their pointed 
and turned up boots, like the modern Turkish slipper. The 
Kheta are by most antiquarians identified with the Hittites 
who inhabited northern Syria (Joshua i. 4), and who had 
monarchs of their own in the time of Solomon (i Kings 
X. 29 ; 2 Kings vii. 6). Thothmes III encountered these 
formidable mountaineers in his expedition against Meggido, 
and one of the pylons at Karnak, discovered by the late 
Mariette Bey, gives a list of towns, including the names of 
Kinnesrin, Aradus, Aleppo, and other places in Northern 
Syria conquered by Thothmes III. after his subjugation of 
the plains of Palestine and Galilee. 

The most important contest was, however, that between 
Rameses II. and the Hittites, in the fifth year of the 
Egyptian monarch's reign, when he marched against the 
city of Kadcsh on Orontes. A formidable league was 
formed to oppose him. The Wysians, the Teurcians, the 
Dardanians, the inhabitants of Aradus, Aleppo, and Car- 
chemish, and even the Trojans (Iluna), and the tribes of 
Mesopotamia (Naharain), are said to have gathered to the 
Hittite standard, with many other unknown tribes. On 
the hieroglyphic pictures the Semitic bearded allies are 


distinguished by dress and arms from the beardless Hittites, 
who are supposed by some anticjuarians to have belonged 
to a Turanian or Turkoman race from Asia Minor, which 
had overrun and subjugated the fertile plains of the Orontes, 
and had even penetrated to the very borders of the Egyptian 

According to the ordinary chronology, the expedition of 
Rameses II. occurred while Israel was being oppressed by 
Jabin, King of Hazar, with his chariots of iron ; and, as it 
is clear from Egyptian records that the Canaanites were 
allies or tributaries of the Egyptians at this period, it is 
highly probable that the iron chariots came from Egypt, 
and belonged to that formidable force of chariots which 
Rameses brought up to the plains of Kadesh to subdue the 
Hittite?. Tae route pursued by Rameses was no doubt 
controlled by the impossibility of crossing rugged mountains 
with a force of chariots, and the road which we know him 
to have followed either on his return or on his advance — 
and probably on both occasions — led along the sea-coasts 
towards Tripoli, passing the Dog River north of Beyrout, 
where three tablets carved in the rocks by his order still 

Thothmes III., who had attacked Kadesh in the thirtieth 
year of his reign, founded a strong fortress near Aradus 
(er Riiad) and Zamira (es Sumra), near the River Eleu- 
therus), at the foot of Eebanon, and it seems probable that 
Rameses would have advanced from the same fortress — 
that is to say, from the western plam across the pass which 
separates the Lebanon from the Ansieriyeh mountains, and 
leads from Tripoli to Homs. 

The town of Kadesh on Orontes is generally said to have 
been on an island in a lake ; but the representation in the 
Ramessum at 'I'hebes of the great battle between Rameses 
II. and the Hittites appears rather to show a fortress sur- 


rounded by a river and situated not far from the borders of 
a lake. The name of this river in the hieroglyphs is 
Arunatha, or Hanruta, and the city is described as lying 
" on the western bank of Hanruta at the lake of the land 
of the Amorites." 

The various references to Kadesh on Orontes were 
kindly collected for me in 1880 by the Rev. H. G. 
Tomkins. The portion of the great battle-piece repre- 
senting the town is to be found copied in Sir G. Wilkinson's 
"Ancient Egyptians," Vol. I., p. 257 The city is shown 
with a double moat crossed by bridges ; on the left a broad 
stream flows to the lake, but on the right the piece is 
obliterated, and it is impossible to see whether the moat 
ran all round, or whether the town lay between the junction 
of two streams. Three higher and two smaller towers are 
shown, and the Hittite army occupies the ground to the left 
of the river, near the shores of the lake. 

Mr. Tomkins also called my attention to another repre- 
sentation of the town to be found in the Denkmaler of 
Lepsius (III., plates 158, 159), where the plan is a long oval 
with a single moat. Three high rowers are seen projecting 
above the rest, and the moat leads downwards on the left, 
and also away on the right, no bridges being shown. 

The lake, near or in which Kadesh stood, has long been 
identified with the Baheiret Homs, or Baheiret Koteineh, 
the lake 6 miles long and 2 miles broad, through which the 
Orontes passes between Riblah and Homs, about 8 miles 
south-west of the latter town. This lake, according to Abu 
el Feda, the geographer, was called in his times Bahr et 
Kades; but the title is no longer known, and the actual site 
of Kadesh was doubtful. It is true that an island exists in 
this lake, but the Egyptian account of the fight cannot be 
understood easily on the suijposition that this island, three- 
fourths of a mile distant from the shore, was the place 


attacked, and I was never al)le to understand the topography 
of the battle until, when standing on the true site of 
Kadesh, it became suddenly all clear. 

The Egyptian army was arrayed south of the city of 
Shabatun, with the brigade of Amun behind and the 
brigade of Ra west of Shabatun. Shasu (or Arab) spies 
were here brought before the Pharaoh and gave false intel- 
ligence to the effect that the King of the Hittites was far 
away, near Aleppo, whereas he lay really in ambush behind 
the town of Kadesh. Ramcses accordingly began to 
descend towards the region north-west of Kadesh, and there 
halted to rest. His scouts here informed him of the secret 
which they had extorted from some Hittite prisoners, and the 
forces near Shabatun was ordered to advance. The King 
of the Hittites passed over the ditch south of Kadesh and 
fell upon and routed the brigade of Ra, which retreated 
" on the road upwards to the place where the king was." 
Rameses was thus attacked on his right flank, and his 
retreat cut off by 2,500 chariots of the allies. He, however, 
charged the Hittites, and drove them before him to the 
Orontes, where many of their soldiers and chariots were 
lost, and where the king of Aleppo was drowned. The 
battle is said to have been "in the plain of the land of 
Kadesh." On the following morning, Rameses attacked the 
city, which yielded to him, and a peace was made with the 
Hittite king and written on a plate of silver, the text of 
which venerable treaty remains to the present day preserved 
in the official account of this campaign. 

Such, then, was the problem to be solved — the discovery 
of a moated city on Orontes near the lake of Homs, in such 
a position as to agree with the minute description of the 
Egyptian scribe. This site we lit upon unexpectedly in the 
imjwrtant ancient city generally known as Tell Neby 
Mendeh, situate on the left bank of Orontes about four 



English miles south of the lake of Horns : for we discovered 
that the name Kades was known to all the inhabitants of the 
vicinity as applying to extensive ruins on the south side of 
this great Tell, while Neby Mandeh is the name of an 


Compass Sketch 

9 Ihrrttin 
KoTe innti 


Seal* 4 tlilet to an Inch. 
-1 i t i f 

« «./m 

important sacred shrine on the highest part of the hill, close 
to which a small Arab village has now grown up. Not only 
is the name of Kadesh thus preserved, but in looking down 
from the summit of the Tell, we appear to see the very 
double moat of the Egyptian picture, for while the stream 
of Orontes is dammed up so as to form a small lake, some 
50 yards across on the south-east of the site, a fresh brook 


flows on the west and north to join the river, and an outer 
line of moat is formed by earthen banks, which flank a sort 
of a(iueduct parallel with the main stream. The united 
waters flow northwards from the Tell, and fall into the lake 
of Homs. Thus only on the south is Kadesh not naturally 
protected with a wet ditch, and the moat may very possibly 
have formerly been completed by cutting a cross channel 
from Orontes to the northern stream. '■ 

In addition to the Society's work proper, we have 
received for publication, from time to time, most 
valuable observations and notes of travel and dis- 
covery, by a great many travellers, especially by Sir 
Charles Wilson, Mr. Laurence Oliphant, Mr. Guy Le 
Strange, Rev. F. W. Holland, Dr. Selah Merrill, and 
Dr. Clay Trumbull, and several valuable papers by 
Dr. Chaplin. 




I. Jerusalem. 

The principal monuments in the Holy City {see 
" Survey of Western Palestine," the " Jerusalem " 
volume, "Architectural History of Jerusalem," p. 5- 
1 16) are as follows : — 

The walls of the Upper City. The great rock- 

Tomb of Nicodemus. 


scarps may be as old as the time of David, eleventh 
century B.C. 

The so-called tomb of Nicodemus west of the 
rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre Church. This has 
been proposed for the burial place of David, Solomon, 
and the more famous of the succeeding kings. Its 
form is that of the oldest class of Jewish tombs. 
The identification depends first of all on the course 
of the Second Wall which must be proved to include 
the tomb within it. 

The great tunnel from the Upper Spring to the 
Pool of Siloam is certainly older than the captivity. 
The inscription lately found in it is believed to refer 
it to Hezekiah (2 Chronicles xxxii. 4, 30). 

The Wall of Ophel, discovered by Captain Warren, 
is at least as old as the time of Nehemiah. 

The rocky scarp of the Tower of Baris, identified 
by Wilson and Warren with the scarp now existing 
at the north-west angle of the Haram, is at least as 
old as the second century B.C. 

The " Cotton Grotto " was a quarry used probably 
by Solomon, certainly by Herod. 

The old rock-cut monuments in the Kedron Valley 
probably belong to the Hasmonean period, i.e.^ the 
second century B.C. 

The so-called " Tombs of the Kings " are supposed 
to be the sepulchre of Queen Helena of Adiabene 
and her sons. 


The so-called " Tombs of the Judges " are said by 
the Jews to be the tombs of the chiefs of the Sanhe- 
drim, also of the Hasmonean period. 

The Temple walls, now the lower courses of the 
wall of the Haram Area, are believed by Captain 
Conder to have been entirely reconstructed by Herod. 
Sir Charles Wilson has discussed the masonry of 
these walls in a paper published in the Quarterly 
Statement of January, 1881. The subject is also 
treated by Sir Charles Warren in the "Jerusalem" 

" Hezekiah's Pool " is supposed to be the Pool 
Amygdalon of the "Towers" mentioned by Josephus, 
5 " Wars," xi. 4. It is in that case at least as old 
as the Herodian period. 

The low level aqueduct from Bethlehem was con- 
structed by Pontius Pilate. 

Besides these monuments, the subterranean passage 
discovered by Warren, the chambers at and about 
Wilson's Arch, the substructures discovered by him 
in and round the walls of the Haram, the double 
Souterrain north-west of the Haram, with its passage 
leading to the Haram Wall, part of the " Tower 
of David " are probably all prs-Christian. 

The present walls appear to have been built on the 
same lines as those of Hadrian, A.D. 136. The Ecce 
Homo Arch is also supposed to be of his construction 
and the Birket Israil is also attributed to him by some. 


The Basilica of the Anastasis, built by Constan- 
tine, has been long destroyed and replaced by succes- 
sive churches, of which the present Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre is the last. 

The Dome of the Rock was built, according to all 
the Arabic historians, by Abd el Melek, in the year 
688, A.D. It is allowed, however, that he employed 
Byzantine architects. 

The Mosque el Aksa was built by Justinian, under 
the name of the Basilica of St. Mary, and was much 
altered by Abd el Melek and his successors. 

A history of all the successive buildings in the city 
will be found in the "Jerusalem" volume already re- 
ferred to. The remaining monuments are the Golden 
Gate, the Double Gate, the vaults called Solomon's 
Stables, the Robinson's Arch, the Birkel el Mamilla, 
and the Birkct es Sultan, the Pool of Bathsheba, the 
Virgin's Fountain, the Pool of Siloam, Bir Eyub, the 
so-called Gate Gennath, &c. 

II. Ihe Moabite stone. 

On the 19th day of August, in the year 1868, the 
Rev. F. A. Klein, a missionary of the Church Mis- 
sionary Society, found the stone at Dhiban. Mr. 
Klein, though in the service of an English society 
and a clergyman of the Church of England, was a 
French subject, being a native of Strasburg, at that 
time a French town. Most unfortunately, Mr. Klein 
withheld his discovery from his countryman IM. 


Clermont Ganneau, who, had he been left alone, 
would certainly have obtained an exact copy, and 
probably have secured it. With equal want of 
judgment, he withheld it from his own colleagues, 
and from the English Bishop. They would have 
communicated it to Captain Warren, then in the city. 
He would, if any man, have been able to get the 
monument brought across the Jordan. But he went 
to the German Consul, Dr. Petermann. 

Here was the grand mistake of the whole business. 
Either Captain Warren or M. Clermont Ganneau could 
have got up the stone, whole and uninjured, for a few 
napoleons, because the Arabs ivet-e zvJiolly un- 
acquainted with its value. One or two attempts were 
secretly made by Dr. Petermann to get the stone by 
means ot native agents. They failed, and doubly 
failed, because they taught the Arabs the value of the 
stone. Then an appeal was made to the Turkish 
Government — the most fatal mistake of all ; for the 
stone was in the possession of Beni Humaydah (not 
the Beni Hamidah, as stated by error in the article 
on the Moabite Stone in the " Recovery of Jerusa- 
lem "), the wildest of the wild tribes to the east of 
Jordan. They were smarting, too, at the time from 
the effects of the Belka Expedition, led by Rashid 
Pasha in person ; and, says Captain l^urton, " know- 
ing what a dragonnade meant, they were in paroxysms 

of terror at the idea of a raid." 



The secret by this time had oozed out, and was 
perfectly well known to Captain Warren, the Rev. 
Dr. Barclay, and M, Clermont Ganneau. It was de- 
cided by Captain Warren that it would be best at 
this point to leave the matter in the hands of Dr. 
Petermann. Observe that any interference on his part 
would have probably tended to complicate matters, 
and might have led to a still earlier destruction of the 
monument. In the spring of 1869, Captain Warren, 
with his party, went to the Libanus. Dr. Petermann, 
too, left Jerusalem for Berlin, after personally assur- 
ing M. Ganneau tJtat the whole affair had fallen 
through. Captain Warren away, and the Prussians 
having desisted from their endeavours, the coast was 
clear for M. Clermont Ganneau. 

M. Ganneau got a squeeze of the whole — in rags 
it is true, but still a squeeze. Then came the catas- 
trophe. The wild Arabs, terrified at the prospect of 
another raid, angry at the probable loss of a stone 
which possessed supernatural powers in their eyes, 
lit a fire under the priceless relic, threw cold water on 
it when it was red-hot, and so smashed it into pieces. 
Captain Warren obtained squeezes of the two larger 
fragments ; and then the work of decipherment, history, 
controversy, and recrimination began. After all that 
has been said as to its history, one thing is clear: 
the blame of its destruction rests neitJier with Captain 
Warren nor witJi M. Clermont Ganneau. Had Mr. 


Klein gone openly in the first instance to the former, 
there is. not the slightest doubt that this most invalu- 
able monument would be now l\'ing, intact and entire, 
in the British Museum, in the Louvre, or in Berlin. 
No matter where, provided only it had been saved. 

For it is a monument which yields in importance 
to none yet found. It is a narrative by a Moabite 
king of his battles and conquests. It is like another 
page added to the Bible. It takes us back to the 
time of King Omri and King Ahab ; and it takes us 
nearer to the origin of our own alphabet than any 
other document yet discovered. In every way it is 
a gain. It has a value historical, a value geographical, 
a value linguistic, a value theological, a value paleeo- 
graphic. It has this value, mutilated as it is. It 
would be priceless indeed, could we recover enough 
of the upper surface to read it without doubt or hesi- 
tation. The number of letters on the monument was 
a little over 1,000. The number preserved is 669. 
Subjoined is the translation given by M. Clermont 
Ganneau, June, 1870: — 

I am Mesa, son of Chamosgad, King of Moab, the 
Dibonite. | My father reigned thirty years, and I have 
reigned after my father. And I have built this sanctuary 
for Chamos in Qarha [sanctuary of salvation], for he has 
saved me from all aggressors and has made me look upon 
all my enemies with contempt. | 

Omri was King of Israel, and oppressed Moab during 
many days, and Chamos was irritated at his aggressions. | 

L 2 


And his son succeeded him, and lie said, he also, " I will 

oppress Moab." | In my days I said " I will . . . him 

and I will visit him and his house." [ And Israel was ruined, 
ruined for ever. Omri gained possession of the land of 
Medeba. | And he dwelt there . . . [Ahab] his son lived 
forty years, and Chamos made him [perish] in my time. [ 

Then I built Baal Meon and constructed Qiriathaim. | 

And the men of Gad dwelt in the country of [Ataro]th 
from ancient times, and the King of Israel had built the 
city of Ataroth. | I attacked the city and I took it, | and 1 
killed all the people of the city, as a spectacle to Chamos 
and to Moab, | and I carried away from there the . . . and 
I dragged it to the ground before the face Chamos at 
Qerioth, | and I brought there the men of Saron (or of 
Chofen) and the men of Maharouth (?). 

And Chamos said to me, " Go ; take Nebah from 
Israel." | I went by night, and I fought against the city from 
dawn to midday, | and I took it : and I killed all, seven 
thousand [men, and I carried away with me] the women 
and the young girls ; for to Astar Chamos belongs the 
consecrati jn of women ; | and I brought from there the 
vessels of Jehovah, and I dragged them on the ground 
before the face of Chamos. | 

And the King of Israel had built Yahas, and resided 
there during his war with me. | And Chamos drove him 
from before my face : I took from Moab two hundred men 
in all ; I made them go up to Yahas, and I took it to annex 
it to Di[)on. | 

It is I who have built Qarha, the Wall of the Forests 
and the Wall of the Hill. | I have built its gates, and I have 
built its towers. I I have built the palace of the king, and 
have constructed the prisons of the ... in the midst of the 

city. I 

And there were no wells in the interior of the city in 


Qarha : and I said to all the people, " Make you every man 
a well in his house," [ and I dug | cisterns for Qarha for | . . . 
of Israel. | 

It is I who have built Aroer, and made the road of 
Arnon. ( 

It is I who have built Beth Bamoth, which was 
destroyed. | It is I who have built Bosor which (is power- 
ful) . . . Dibon of the military chiefs, for all Dibon was 
submissive, j And I have filled . . . with the cities which I 
have added to the land (of Moab). | 

And it is I who have built . Beth Diblathain, and Beth 
Baal Meon, and I have raised there the . . . the land. | And 
Horonaim, he resided there with . . . | And Chamos said to 
me, " Go down and fight against Horonaim." | . . . Chamos 
in my day . , . the year .... 

III. The stone of Zohcleth. 

The following is M. Clermont Ganneau's account of 
the discovery : — 

Nearly in the centre of the line along which stretches the 
village of Si loam, there exists a rocky plateau surrounded 
by Arab buildings, which mask its true form and extent ; 
the western face, cut perpendicularly, slightly overhangs the 
valley. Steps rudely cut in the rock enable one to climb it, 
not without difficulty, and so to penetrate directly from the 
valley to the midst of the village. By this road, trouble- 
some, and even dangerous, pass habitually the women of 
Siloam, who come to fill their vessels at the so-called 
" Virgin's Fount " (Ain Sitti Mariam, Immed-deraj ). Now, 
this passage and the ledge of rock m which it is cut are 
called by the fellahin " Ez Zehwki.f." It is impossible not 
to be struck with the absolute identity which this name 
offers with that of the stone of /.ohclcth^ which the Bible 
(i Kings i. 9) places near (~i^^) Ain Rogel. It is quite 


sufficient, in fact, to compare the Hebrew and Arabic to 
determine with what precision the phonetic elements corre- 
spond. The vocal type itself is exactly reproduced, putting 
aside an insignificant inversion of the sound 6>, which in 
Hebrew precedes, and in Arabic follows, the consonant H- 
A homogeneous transcript will present us with this identity 
in still clearer manner. Hebrew : Zohelet ; Arabic : Zelwelet. 
I believe, then, that we can consider the situation of the 
stone of Zoheleth definitely determined. This point fixed 
with certainty can serve to determine the position of many 
others of the highest interest. At present I can only 
indicate a few, proposing to return to the question at length 
at some future time. For example, it becomes extremely 
probable that we must put En Rogel at the Virgin's 
Fountain, and not at Bir Eyiib. In fact, Bir Eyub is 700 
metres distant from Zehwele, and the Pool of Siloam is 
400 metres ; while the Virgin's Fountain, situated exactly 
opposite Zehwele, is only separated from it by the breadth 
of the valley, about 60 metres. I call attention to the 
importance of this result in tracing the line separating the 
territories of Benjamin and Judah, which passed by Am 
Rogel, and the support which it affords to Captain Warren's 
ingenious theory of the direction of this line. 

I must advance another fact which appears to me 
intimately connected with this remark, and to confirm it in 
a certain measure. We know the multiplicity of denomi- 
nations under which the great eastern valley of J erusalem, 
so commonly called the Kedron is known. The fellahin of 
Siloam divide it into three sections, whii h are, proceeding 
from north to south : ist, Wady Sitti Mariam ; 2nd, ^\'ady 
Fer'aun ; 3rd, Wady Eyub. The name of the intermediate 
part, which extends from the south-east angle of the Haram 
to the confluence at the north of Blr Eyub, is remarkable : 
Wady Fer'aun that is, Fharauh's Valley. Now it is well 


known that to the xA.rabs, the name of Pharaoh simply 
indicates the idea of something or other of ancient times, 
and it is found with this vague meaning in a crowd of 
places which have nothing to do with Egypt, very much as 
in France, where all Roman camps are for the vulgar, 
Caesar's camps. Wady Fer'aun signifies, then, the valky of 
the king, and the region to which this name is applied is 
precisely that which the Kiii^s Gardejis of the Bible used 
to occupy. 

IV. The inscribed stone of the Temple. 
M. Clermont Ganneau thus described his discovery 
in the AtJiencBiini of Jime lOth, 1871 : — • 

Permit me to make known, in a few words, an 
important discovery which I have just made in Jerusalem. 
It is one of those tablets which, in the temple reconstructed 
by Herod, forbade strangers, as Josephus tells us, from 
passing the sacred enclosure — the prohibition being written 
in Greek and Latin. The tablet which I have found bears 
the following inscription in Greek in seven lines : — 







The characters are monumental in size, and present the 
appearance which one would expect in an inscription of the 


The translation is : — 

" No stranger is to enter within the balustrade (r^T'^jaK-rot-) round the 
temple and enclosure. Whoever is caught will be responsible to himself 
for his death, which will ensue." 

The iiassage of Josephus to which I have made allusion, 
is as follows : — 

" When you go through these first cloisters unto the second (court of 
the seven temples), there was a partition (f pv^a/crof ) made of stone all 
round, whose height was three cubits ; its constructi-in was very elegant. 
Upon it stood pillars at equal distances from one another, declaring the 
laws of purity, some in Greek, and some in Roman letters, that no 
* foreigner should go within that saiictuarj'.' "* 

The connection between this text and our inscription is 
striking. The expressions and the forms are similar : ^lijceva 
a\\60v\oi> is the exact equivalent of our fiijCevu'aWo^evTj ; 
" the second iepov," says Josephus, is surrounded by the 
" fp('0«A:Tov." Our inscription says " the T/ji'0«/tTov which is 
round the 'hjiov." The variant T/ji'0«fc-7os is singular, and 
probably points to one of the faults of pronunciation in use 
amongst the Jews speaking Greek at this period. We must 
observe that Josephus does not speak of the tragic fate which 
menaced him who might violate the rule; his silence is 
certainly intentional. 

We may boldly affirm that this Greek inscription is not 
only the most ancient, but also the most interestmg, in all its 
[)earings, which Jerusalem has yet produced. I cannot in 
this simple letter follow out all the (juestions which it raises ; 
that must be the object of a special memoire. I will confine 
myself only to remark the principal points which attach to 
it ; the fixing of a certain palseographic scale for Greek 
inscriptions already discovered, or yet to be discovered, in 
Jerusalem ; the form and dimensions of the tablet, which 
may determine the use of the three cubit balustrade which 
it surmounted ; ap])earance and workmanship of the stone, 

* Whiston's translation is here given. 


permitting us to specify technically the blocks of Herodian 
work, and to distinguish them from those cut at a previous 
date ; striking confirmations of the exactness of Josephus's 
descriptions ; authentic and contemporaneous definitions of 
the different parts of the temple ; the T/3ii0a/cTos' {sored of the 
Talmud ?), the 'Upov., the TrepiiioXi] &c., &c. 

The episode in the Acts of the Apostles (xxi. 26, et 
seq.) throws on, as well as receives from, this precious 
inscription great light. Paul, after purification, presents 
himself in the temple ; the people immediately rise against 
him, because certain Jews of Asia believed that Paul had 
introduced into the temple a Gentile, Trophimus of Ephesus, 
and had thus polluted the sacred place. They are about to 
put him to death when the Tribune commanding at Fort 
Antonia intervenes and rescues him from the hands of his 
executioners. The people demand of the Tribune the 
execution of the culprit, i.e., the "application of the law." 

V. The inscription in the Pool of Siloam. 

This inscription, by far the most important of any 
yet found in Jerusalem, was accidentally discovered in 
August, 1880. On hearing of it, the Committee sent 
out authority to Dr. Chaplin to expend the money 
required to lower the water in order to examine it 
more carefully, and to take copies of it. It has been 
examined and copied by Captain Conder, HcrrGuthe, 
M. Clermont Ganneau, Prof. Sayce, and others. The 
forms of the letters arc closely like those of the 
Moabitc stone, the words being divided by points. 
A cast has been taken of the inscription. The 
translation is thus given by Prof. Sayce {Quarterly 
Statement, October, 1881): — 


(i) Behold the excavation ! Now this is the history of 
the tunnel. While the excavators were lifting up 

(2) the pick, each towards the other; and while there 
were yet three cubits to be broken through . . . the 
voice of the one called 

(3) to his neighbour, fur there was an excess (?) in the 
rock on the right. They rose uj:) . . . . they struck on 
the west of the 

(4) excavation, the excavators struck, each to meet the 
other, pick to pick. And there flowed 

(5) the waters from their outlet to the Pool for a distance 
of a thousand cubits ; and (three-fourths ?) 

(6) of a cubit was the height of the rock over the head of 
the excavation here. 

Its date is believed to be that of Hezekiah. 

VI. The Head of Hadrian. 

A statue of Hadrian erected on the site of the 
Holy of Holies in that emperor's reign was the cause 
of the last revolt under the Bar Cochebas. The Head 
of this statue was found by M. Clermont Ganneau in 
Jerusalem, and is here figured. 

VII. The Gaza Jupiter. Concerning this statue, 
Captain Conder wrote in 1882 from Constantinople: 

This great statue was discovered, in iSSo, by the 
natives at Tell 'Ajjul, south of Gaza, and we owe its 
preservation to the exertions of the Rev. W. Shapira, 
the missionary. The Arabs had at once commenced to 
break up the statue, and had succeeded in greatly damaging 
the face. Mr. Shnpira persuaded the governor to set a 
guard over the place, and the antiquarians of Palestine owe 



Head of Hadrian. 

him a debt of gratitude for having prevented the entire 
destruction of this unique monument. A paper descriptive 



of the statue will be found in the Qtiarterly Statement., 
with tlie measurement of its principal proportions. I now 
send a copy of the sketch which I have just made from the 
original in the porch of the 
Stamboul Museum. The sug- 
gestion which I ventured to make 
at the time seems to me to be 
fully borne out, and there can, I 
imagine, be little doubt that the 
figure is intended for a Jupiter. 
The princijjal deity of Gaza was 
called Marna {i.e., t^21»2 " Our 
I^ord"), and was worshipped as 
late as the fifth century a.d. (Epi- 
phanius Adv Hoeret). He was a 
deity who controlled the rain, and 
his temple was destroyed by St. 
Porphyirus (Acta Sanct). Accord- 
ing to Lenormant he was a god 
similar to the Cretan Jupiter and 
the Phcenician Eshmun — the 
chief among a group of seven or 
eight deities ("Lcttres Assyrio- 
logiques," Vol. II., Letter V., p. 
165, j^^.). These seven Cabiri or 
"great ones" appear to have all 
had temples in Gaza, That of Marna, destroyed by the 
Christians, was round, with two outer porches or circles — 
a kind of Druidical circle perhaps. His other titles 
were "the living," "the eternal," "the universal," "the 
everlasting." It seems probable that the statute at Con- 
stantinople may be that of the Jupiter iSIarna of Gaza. 
The nose and face have been damaged, but the arrange- 
ment of the hair reminds one of the classic Jupiter. The 

The Gaza Stalue. 


right arm is broken above the elbow, the left appears to 
have been sawn off. The figure was seated on a bench, but 
the legs have also apparently been sawn off in front. These 
mutilations had been, I believe, effected before the statue 
was discovered, and it seemed to me possible that the pious 
pagans may have buried their Jupiter to save him from the 
Christians, and may have been obliged to divide it for 
facility of transport. 

VIII. The Gezer inscriptions. 

The following was written by M. Clermont Gan- 
neau in the field after finding the first ; a second 
inscription was afterwards discovered. 

But the most important inscription of all, the discovery of 
which is the grand result of this campaign, is that of Gezer. 
I have already touched upon it in a few words written hastily 
from Jaffa. 

Here, then, are new details on the subject, pending the 
full study which will accompany the original. I send yon a 
drawing of the inscription, made by M. Lecomte with his 
accustomed care and ability. This may serve as a basis tor 
the observations of savants. I was the first to establish the 
identity of Tell el Jezer (ihe Abu Shusheh of the maps) with 
the royal Canaanite city of Gezer, hitherto vainly sought and 
generally placed at Yasur. I communicated this discovery 
to different persons at Jerusalem, and during my last stay 
in France I had the honour of reading before the Academy 
of Inscriptions a memoir on the subject, which was only 
partially published. 

I now remember that, when I had finished the reading, 
the President of the Academy asked me if I had found on 
the spot any inscription confirming this identification, made, 


SO to speak, a priori, and having iox point de depart ?i little- 
known passage in Medjr ed Din. 

T was obliged to confess that I had not in support of my 
theory any proof of this kind, and that I could only quote, 
outside my narrow base, the classical and critical arguments 
which from the time of Robinson have served to establish 
the principal Biblical identifications. 

Very well ;— this unhoped-for proof, improbable even in 
Palestine, where not a single corresponding example has 
been met with, I have, had the great fortune to find. 

At a very short distance from Tell el Jezer, on the east 
side, the text in question exists, engraved on a slab of rock 
nearly horizontal, and very nearly two metres in length. 

It is bilingual : it begins with the Greek word AAKIO — in 
characters of classical epoch, immediately followed by the 
Hebrew letters of ancient square form, of which nothing, I 
think, can be made except 1"fJ + ?2nr\- 

In the second word we \\:xwt the very name of Gezer just 
as it is writtefi in the Bible. 

As to the first, I can see nothing else than the defective 
form of 72inn- The omission of the van is perfectly admis- 
sible considering the remote period at which the inscription 
was written. 

As for the signification of the word, it is clearly that of 
limit. The word is not Biblical, but it is frequently employed 
in the Talmud to determine the distance that must not be 
exceeded on the Sabbath day — rQ"C?n TDinH- 

The Hebrew inscription must, then, be translated as limit 
of Gezer. 

Is this the hieratic, or simply the civil limit ? 

Two facts appear to argue in favour of the first 
conjecture : — 

I. The special acceptation of the word T^^IHil ^" ^^'''^ 
Talmudic language. 


2. The quality of the city Gezer as belonging to the group 
of Levitical cities, so that the observation of the Sabbatical 
limits would be more rigorously observed than elsewhere. 

I have no time to enter into the still obscure question of 
the length of a Sabbath day's journey. I reserve that for 
the special publication of this precious text, which will 
perhaps actually solve it, if it means really the Sabbatical 
limit and not a non-religious boundary. 

I need not recall the well-known passage, Numbers xxxv. 
2-34,* where the limits of the Levitical cities and these 
suburbs are so exactly ordered. It may very well be that in 
the same radius round Tell el Gezer we may find at the 
other cardinal points similar inscriptions. I mean to look 
for them. 

One particularity on which I must insist, as it may 
enlighten us on the real destination of this singular and 
unique inscription, is that of its position. The letters are 
placed so as to be read, not by any one who came from 
Gezer and intended to cross the hieratic boundary, but by 
one who, coming from without, sought to pass within. This 
makes me inclined to believe that we have not simply a 
warning for the Sabbatic rest, but a line of demarcation 
much more important and necessary. 

Let me recall, en passant, the fact that Gezer was a frontier 
town of Ephraim, though I would not pretend to see a 
tribe-limit in this city boundary. 

Gezer was a Levitical city (Joshua xxi. 21). "They gave 
[the Levites which remained of the children of Kohath] 
Shechem with her suburbs in Mount Ephraim to be a city 
of refuge for the slayer ; and Gezer with her suburbs." 

* Vcr. 5. " Ye shall measure from without the city on the side two 
thousand cub'ts, and on the south side two thousand cubits, and on the 
west side two thousand cubits, and on the north side two thousand 
cubits, and the city shall be in the midst," &c. 


It is also possible that the Sabbatical limit was the same 
as the Levitical. 

However that may be, our inscription fixes one point of 
some perimeter about Gezer. The operations of measure- 
ment which we shall proceed to make will perhaps show us 
whether this radius is one, two, or three thousand cubits, or 
whether it is of the length indicated by several authors as 

that of the oSo? au^^drov. 

What is the date of the inscription ? Palffiographically 
and historically it seems that we may boldly assign it a date 
previous to Titus as a minimum limit. 

I should not even hesitate to put it at the Maccabean 
period during which Gezer plays so important a part, and 
becomes a political and military centre. The Greek and 
Hebrew characters may very well belong to the first century 
before Christ. The date, I believe, may thus vary between 
the two extreme points. 

The name of "aXkws does not help us in fixing it. Is it 
the name of a priest, or of a governor of Gezer ? It indicates 
Hellenised habits which would be repulsive to the first 
Asmonseans, and which tend to bring our inscription down 
to Herodian times, in which Hellenism was flourishing. 

As to the truncated form a\kio, that may be explained by 
the fact of the two texts, Hebrew and Greek, being placed 
end to end on the same line ; and commencing one at the 
right and the other at the left, the engraver carving his 
Greek word after the other, could not find room for the 
whole word, his O abutting on the ~1 of the word Gezer. 
Besides, a broken place in the rock between the A and the K 
took up a portion of the space at his disposal. 

I think that the limit of the protecting boundary was not 
marked only by this inscription on the level of the ground, 
and difficult to see, but, besides, by some salient sign, some 
landmark, or cifpits pomcErius, which has disappeared, the 







the traces of which I intend to look for. The existence of 
indicative marks seems pointed out clearly in Numbers xxxv. 

To sum up, this discovery has for its chief results — 

1. The finding of a Hebrseo-Greek text of ancient date, 
very important in Jewish epigraphy. 

2. The positive confirmation that Gezer is really at Tell 
el Jezer, as I had shown from critical considerations. 

This startling confirmation of an identification obtained 
solely by an inductive method has its weight in other Biblical 
identifications established on the same principles, gives them 
legitimacy, so to speak, and confirms the degree of credi- 
bility which belongs to them. 

3. The probable solution of the much disputed contro- 
versy of the Sabbath day's journey and the hieratic limits of 
Levitical cities. 

4. A well-grounded hope of finding in the environs of 
Gezer and the other Levitical cities analogous inscriptions. 

The whole of the discoveries at and about Gezer 
are fully described, with plans and a map, in the 
"Survey of Western Palestine," Memoirs II., p. 


IX. The stone of Bethphage. 

This stone, with its frescoes representing the 

raising of Lazarus and the disciples bringing the 

ass, is a Crusading monument discovered by Frere- 

Lievin, copied by Captain Guillemot and commented 

upon by M. Clermont Ganncau. It is curious and 

interesting, because it is proved by this learned 

archaeologist to have been the traditional stone on 



which Our Lord rested when He sent the disciples 
"to the village " (Matthew xxi. 2). 

X. The Hamath inscriptions. Copies of these are 
in the Society's collection at the South Kensington 
Museum. Since their re-discovery, some fifteen years 
ago — they had previously been seen by Burck- 
hardt — many other fragments of inscriptions in the 
same character have been found. No attempt to read 
them has as yet been generally accepted. The reason 
why they were attributed to the Hittites, may be 
found in Dr. Wright's " Empire of the Hittites." 

XT. The Sassanian building at Amman. 

The most important point in the detailed survey of 
Amman, on the East of Jordan, was the examination of 
a small building on the top of the citadel hill at 'Amman. 
It had been visited and described by Consul Finn, 
Colonel Warren, and Canon Tristram, but as none of 
these explorers were able to remain very long at this 
site, it had not been fully described. It has generally 
been supposed to be of Byzantine origin, and has been 
variously described as a church and a mosque. An inspec- 
tion of the enclosed plan and details will, however, perhaps 
serve to show that the building is equally unlike either the 
Byzantine churches, or the Arab mosques of Palestine, and 
that it has, indeed, an unique character, and is well worth 
minute study. 

The building stands in the middle of the courtyard of the 
Temple, and is irregulady built, so that the west side 
measures 85 ft., the east 81 ft., the south 80 ft. It has 
a central open court 33 ft. scjuare, from which arched 
recesses open back, each measuring about 18 ft. square. 





In the four corners are small vaulted chambers, and in the 
north-west angle are remains of a staircase whicn appeals 
to have led ujj from the outside to the roof. 

It does not seem that the central court was ever roofed 
over. The entrance to the building is from the south, and 
seems to be of the same date with the main part of the 
buildings, although traces of reconstruction may, perhaps, 
be suspected on the south wall. There was another 
entrance on the north, now blocked. 

The main feature of the building is, however, the 
elaborately sculptured ornamentation of the inner walls. 

The accompanying drawings 

will serve to show the style of 
this ornamentation, which, 
as a whole, is quite unlike 
any sculpture found in Wes- 
tern Palestine. The designs 
differ on the different walls, 
and the sculpture does not 
seem to have been finished, 
as some of the panels are 
left plain ; and the tracery 
on the north wall seems to 
be incomplete. The sculp- 
ture is in low relief or. stone 
of fair consistency, taken 
from the neighbouring lime- 

5cdi« 1 00 feet to 1 1nch. 

Plan and Section ot Sassanian 

Stone quarries. 

On either side of the bold central arch is a sculptured 
panel with an arched head, standing on a string course 
with three smaller arch-headed panels beneath, and three 
others again above. The bas-reliefs in the larger panels 
differ in each case, one as shown reprcsentnig two rows of 
circles enclosing geometrical designs, wliilc another gives 

M 2 


a stiff conventional tree pattern not unlike the sacred con- 
ventional tree of Asshur which is found on Assyrian bas- 
reliefs. There is an entire absence of any figures of birds or 
animals, and in this respect the sculpture differs from that of 
the famous Sassanian Palace at Mashita, discovered by 
Canon Tristram, not far from the present site, although in 
other respects there is a similarity between the two buildings 
in detail. 

Among the details will be observed a flat dog-tooth 
moulding, which somewhat resembles the ornament applied 
by the Crusaders to arches in their early churches of the 
1 2th century, — as, for instance, in the beautiful west window 
of the Muristan at Jerusalem, of which a photograph was 
taken by Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E. The vine-bunches 
which occur in the interior of some of the lower panels are 
also interesting ; similar conventional vine-patterns occur 
not only on the later Jewish tombs of the period when 
Greek art influenced the native sculptors, but also in 
Byzantine tombs and chapels of the 5th and 6th century in 
Western Palestine. 

The most valuable features are, however, the arches and 
the pilasters of the panels. It is very curious to note that 
in this small structure, the round arch, the pointed arch, 
and the Moorish arch all occur together, the two later forms 
being in an embryonic condition which architects will 
probably consider very interesting. The great central 
arches, w-hich form the face of the tunnel-vaults of the four 
recessed chambers, appear to have a very slight and almost 
imperceptible point of which the attached photograph w-ill 
give a fair idea. The shape is, indeed, almost exactly the 
same as that of the arches supporting the dome in the 
Jerusalem Dome of the Rock. It has long been a subject of 
debate whether the arches in the latter building were round 
or pointed. Those in the outer arcade, which are covered 


with ancient glass mosaic, are round, those in the inner arcade 
under the dome have a very shght and ahiiost imperceptible 
point, as can be seen in the photograph taken in 1874 at 
my request by Lieutenant Kitchener, where three arches 
are shown directly facing the spectator. These arches are 
now, however, covered with marble casing, so that it is not 
quite certain whether the structure beneath may not be a 
round arch ; but the new example from 'Amman serves to 
throw some light on this question. 

The feature of the slender coupled columns with very 
simple capitals is also worthy of special attention, as will be 
noticed immediately. The Moorish form of the interior 
of the arches above the larger panels will be noticed on the 

In his valuable critique on the Palace of Mashita, Mr. 
Fergusson compares that building with the Sassanian archi- 
tecture of Persia, instancing the great buildings of Tak 
Kesra and Taki Gero \ and he also draws attention to the 
connection between Persian and Byzantine architecture. 
The elevation of Takt-i-Kesra presents several features of re- 
markable similarity to the details of the building on the hill 
at 'Amman. The great central archway ; the walls panelled 
with arches divided by coupled columns having a single cap ; 
the use of round, pointed, and stilted arches in one structure, 
are common to the two buildings, and the inference is 
natural that the 'Amman example may prove to be of Sas- 
sanian origin — an inference supported by the existence of 
the Mashita Palace in the same district, since Mr. Fergusson 
has decided that this latter must be referred to the time of 
Chosrocs II. 

There is, however, one great difference remarked between 
the 'Amman building and the Mashita palace, namely tliat 
no figures of birds or beasts occur in the former. This 
suggests that the 'Amman building may probably be the 


work of a Moslem people, and thus, perhaps, one of the 
earliest Arab structures subsequent to the conquest by Omar, 
The early Khalifs, incU:ding 'Abd el Rlelek, employed 
Greek architects in Syria, and Coptic Christians in Egypt, to 
build their early mosques ; but it is not less certain that the 
influence of Persian art was strongly felt by the half-civilised 
Arabs. The historian Ibn Khaldun, as quoted by Lane, 
writes thus : " When they ceased to observe the strict precepts 
of their religion, and the disposition for dominion and 
luxurious living overcame them, the Arabs employed the 
Persian nation to serve them, and acquired from them the 
arts and architecture, and then they made loft> buildings." 
Mr. Poole has, moreover, pointed out, in commenting on 
this passage, that probably the Persian influence had affected 
the Greeks of the Eastern Empire before it reached the 
Arabs, and that some of the peculiarities of Byzantine art 
may, perhaps, be best explained by comparison with Sas- 
sanian buildings. 

If the conclusion be considered correct that the building 
on the hill at 'Amman is an early specimen of Moslem work 
under Sassanian influence, the comparison with the Dome 
of the Rock at Jerusalem is instructive and interesting. 

In addition to the peculiarities of the arches common to 
the two buildings, it may be noted that at Jerusalem in the 
outer wall of the Dome of the Rock, we have the same 
feature of large round-headed panels (pierced in some 
instances v;ith windows) having above them a second tier of 
smaller panels, with simple coupled columns between. 
Probably also son^e resemblance may be recognised between 
the details of the ornamentation, as, for instance, the con- 
ventional vine-pattern which occurs also (in bronze) on the 
wooden architrave which spans the round arches of the 
arcade in the Dome of the Rock. 

The Dome of the Rock, which, according to the ancient 


Cufic inscription in the interior, was built by Moslems in 
688 A.D., is a building recognized as presenting features of 
very Byzantine appearance. The comparison with the 
Moslem building at 'Amman may, perhaps, be considered 
to throw some light on the explanation which may finally 
be expected of the pecularities of its architecture. 

There are, unfortunately, no traces of any inscription on 
either the mosque or the upper building at 'Amman, beyond 
a rudely carved religious formula above noticed, which seems 
to have been cut at a late period by an unskilled hand. 

It should be noted, finally, that the Moorish arch (a seg- 
ment of a circle greater than half) not only occurs in the 
upper building, but seems also to have been used in the 
arched ribs supporting the mosque roof. The arches have 
fallen, but the haunch stones in some cases remain, and are 
corbelled out so as to present a reverse curve, which is 
rather ornamental than really structural. — I'rom Captain 
Conder's Reports. 

XII. The rude stone monuments. 

There are but one or two of these in Western 
Palestine, but in the East, so far as it has yet been 
explored they abound. Thus Captain Conder wrote 
in November, 1881 : — 

In a former report I described briefly some of the rude 
stone monuments which we examined at Hesban, but as yet 
I have not given any account of the still more interesting 
groups which we discovered later, including structures of 
seven different kinds, viz. : i. dolmens (or cromlechs) : 2. 
Menhirs or standing stones ; 3. cubical stones in circles or 
standing alone ; 4. Circles of rude stones piled m a heap ; 
5, Rude pillars; 6. Cairns; 7. Disk stones. 

Of these the cromlechs or dolmens (whichever be the 
correct title) are the most numerous. In Wady Hesban 

1 84 


there are about 50; round Wady Jideid there are groups 
which give together a total of about 150. On the north side 
of the Zerka M'ain there is a large group, numbering some 

Minyeh Rude Stone Monument. 






30 feet 

150. At Mount Nebo there are only a very few in connection 
with a large stone circle and cairn. At 'Amman we dis- 
covered 8 in all, very much scattered. Near the Jabbok 



there is another group not yet visited, and in the Ghor es 
Seiseban, for a distance of about two miles, between Wady 




XMenhir called 
Hair el Mansub 

Hajr e 

'/eof ivi6<^' 

Rougrh Sketcli of the Site of 

Kefrein and Wady Hesban, all the spurs are covered with 
dolmens, numbering between 200 and 300 in all, while 
north and south of these limits not a single specimen can be 
found for many miles. The total of 600 to 700 is thus divided 
into seven very distinct groups, each occurring in the vicinity 
of fine springs, and of hill-tops commanding an extensive 
view ; and the impression which I noted in my former 
report is fully confirmed, for the dolmens are not scattered 
over the country without system, but are confined to localities 
at considerable distances apart, where they are crowded 
close together, generally appcarmg to group round a central 
point on a hill-top. 

Although no previous traveller has been enabled to 
examine carefully all the groups mentioned, the discovery of 
such monuments dates back more than sixty years, to the 


time when Irby and Mangles made their adventurous journey 
to Moab and Gilead. At a later period the dolmens have 
been briefly described by Dr. Tristram; and some of the 
menhirs have been visited and measured by Herr Conrad 

XIII. Among all the monuments of the country 
there is certainly none, if the associations claimed for 
it be allowed, which arc of greater interest than that 
supposed by Captain Conder to be none other than 
the Golgotha and the Tomb near it. He says 
{Quarterly Statement, 1881, p. 201) : 

1 find that the identification of the hill above Jeremiah's 
Grotto with the probable site of Calvary, which depends 
mainly on the fact that, according to Jewish tradition, this 
was the ancient place of public execution, has found favour 
with a l.irge number of intelligent readers. I have already 
explained that we are indebted to Dr. Chaplin for discover- 
ing the tradition ; but there are several facts in connection 
with this most interesting question which I have only 
recently ascertained. 

The modern Arab name of the place is el Heidhemnyeh 
("torn down"), but this is a corruption of the earlier 
AdJieiniyeh as given by Mejr ed Din, and there seems no 
doubt that it is derived from the tomb of a son of the 
famous Edhem, a historical character. The Sheikh of the 
Jerusalem Haram gave me this explanation, which is con- 
firmed by Dr. Chaplin. It appears also from Mejr ed Din, 
that the neighbourhood immediately east was called es 
Sahira, and was an ill-omened place connected in the 
imagination of Moslems with death and judgment (like the 
Kedron Valley beyond it). Possibly in this we may have 



some trace of the ill-omened site of the ancient place of 

Another point concerning this hillock has been noticed 
by recent visitors, who have seen in its outline a resem- 
blance to a skull. This was mentioned to me by the Rev. 
A. Henderson, but I could not then remember the circum- 
stance. On walking from the north-east corner of Jerusalem 
towards the rock I perceived, however, what was meant. 
The rounded summit and the two hollow cave entrances 
beneath do, indeed, give some resemblance to a skull, as 
may be seen in a photograph taken from this point of view 
by Lieutenant Mantell, which I enclose. It is the skull of 

Nuwly dibcoviired Tonil), 200 yards west of Jcicmiah's (JroUo. — 
View from East. 


an animal rather than of a human being, and I should not 
like to base an argument on so slight a resemblance. It is, 
however, of interest to note the fact, as many persons 
consider that Golgotha was a name derived from the form 
of the ground, rather than from the use of the site as a 
place of burial or of execution. 

It is more important to notice that the site of Jeremiah's 
Grotto is peculiarly fitted for a place of execution in con- 
sequence of its commanding position. From the summit 
the eye roams above the city walls over the greater part of 
Jerusalem, while on the west the ground rises beyond the 
intervening valley like a theatre. There is hardly another 
spot near Jerusalem so fitted to be the central point for 
any public spectacle. 

Still more interesting is a discovery which I made about 
a week ago of an indisputably Jewish tomb immediately 
west of the knoll in question. It has only recently been 
opened, and has not been as yet described, I believe, by 
any visitor. It is cut in the east face of a very curious 
rock platform measuring about 70 paces either way — as 
shown on the Ordnance Survey about 200 yards west of the 
grotto. The platform is roughly scarped on all sides, in an 
apparently artificial manner, and on the west is a higher 
piece of rock, also with sides rudely scarped. The rest of 
the space is fairly level, but there seem to be traces of the 
foundations of a surrounding wall in some low mounds near 
the edge of the platform. I have long been aware of the 
existence of a curious cistern in the north-east corner of this 
scarp. It has a domed roof with a man-hole, and also a 
door with a passage 10 ft. long and 3 ft. wide, leading out 
eastwards. The cistern is about 8 paces in diameter, and 
three steps lead down from the door to the level of the 
cistern floor. The excavation seems originally to have been 
a chamber afterwards converted into a cistern, and there are 



sockets for the door hinges and for bolts in the passage 

The ancient tomb is some thirty paces further south, and 
the entrance is also from the east. The whole is very rudely 



iScwly (libcuvered JewiMi Ti iiih near the oily, 200 ) arils wcsl of 
Jercn.iah's Grotto. 


cut in rock, which is of inferior quahty. The doorway is 
much broken, and there is a loophole or window 4 ft. wide 
either side of the door. The outer court, cut in the rock, 
is 7 ft. square, and two stones are so placed in this as to 
give the idea th:it they may have held in place a rolling 
stone l)efore the door. On the right (or north) is a side 
entrance, leading into a chamber with a single loculus, and 
thence into a cave, some 8 paces square and 10 ft. high, 
with a well-nioulh in the roof. 

The chamber within the tomb entrance is reached by a 
descent of two steps, and measures 6 ft. by 9 ft. From 
either side wall and from the back wall is an entrance 20 
in wide and about 5^ ft. high, leading into a side chamber. 
A passage runs in continuation of each entrance for 4-^ ft., 
and on each side is a bench about 2^ ft. wide and 2^ ft. 
high. A similar bench occurs at the end, the whole width 
of each chamber being thus 5^^ ft., its length 7 ft. 2 in., and 
its height from 5 to 6 ft. Each would contain two bodies 
lying beside the passage, but there would scarcely be room 
for three. In addition to these three chambers, there are 
two excavations on the floor-level, in the further corner of 
the central chamber. They are about 5 ft. scjuare, with 
narrow entrances, and were scattered with human bones at 
the time of my visit. 

The discovery of this tomb is of no little importance in 
connection with Jerusalem topography. If it be compared 
with the great cemetery at Sheik Ibreik, and with the 
monument of Helena at Jerusalem, it will be seen to belong 
to the later Jewish period — the centuries immediately pre- 
ceding the Christian era. It is not a Christian tomb, so 
far as can be judged, for ihe Christians in Palestine seem 
mainly to have used the " rock-sunk " tomb. A cemetery of 
tombs of the form commonly used by the Crusaders was 
found in 1873 near the north-east angle of the Jerusalem 


eity walls, bat no Jewish tomb has ever been found before 
so close to the ramparts of the modern city on the north : 
the next nearest being the tomb discovered in 1873, about 
300 yards further north. 

It would be bold to hazard the suggestion that the single 
Jewish sepulchre thus found is indeed the tomb in the 
garden nigh unto the place called Golgotha, which belonged 
to the rich Joseph of Arimathea ; yet its appearance so near 
the old place of execution, and so far from the other tombs 
in the other cemeteries of the city, is extremely remarkable. 
I am sorry to say that a group of Jewish houses is growing 
up round the spot. The rock is being blasted for building- 
stone, and the tomb, unless preserved, may perhaps soon 
be entirely destroyed. It is now in a disgusting condition 
of filth, which shov.'s that the Jews have little reverence for 
the old sepulchres of their ancestors. Perhaps some of our 
readers might feel willing to redeem this most interesting 
monument from its present state of desecration, and to 
purchase and enclose the little plot of rocky ground in which 
it stands. Without such preservatit)n the sepulchre is doomed 
to destruction sooner or later. 

The platform of rock in which the tomb is cut seems 
possibly to have been the base of a group of towers with a 
scarped foundation. 

The distance from the monument of Helena, and the 
p-jsition with respect to the Cotton Grotto, agrees with the 
description given by Josephus of the position of the 
"Women's Towers " {see " Handbook to the Bible," p. 342). 
If the third w'all actually extended over this Hue, it is 
easy to explain why no other tombs of the same period 
exist so close to the present city. The extension of the 
fortifications rendered it necessary to remove the cemetery 
further off, since the Jews did not allow sepulture within the 
walls. The cisterns may have belonged to the period when 


the great towers were here erected, and the passage with 
steps may even have been a postern from the towers. 

If we could feel any reasonable certitude that in this 
single Jewish tomb (dating about the time of Christ) we 
have recovered the actual sepulchre in which He lay, an 
easy explanation of the loss of the site is afforded at once ; 
for the construction, some ten years later, of the " Women's 
Towers " by Agrippa, uj)on the rock over the tomb, would 
have caused the monument to be hidden beneath, or within 
the new buildings ; and thus the sepulchre could no longer 
be visited, and in course of time its existence was forgotten 
until the zealous Helena destroyed the Venus Temple on 
the present site of the Holy Sepulchre Church, and 
" beyond all hope " (as Eusebius words it) discovered the 
rock-cut Jewish tomb, which the faithful accepted as the 
tomb of Christ. 


XIV. Jacob's Well. 

This well was examined by the late Major 
Anderson, who was lowered to the bottom in the year 
1866. He thus described it : — 

Jacob's Well is situated at the spot where the Vale of 
Shechem merges into the Plain of El Mukna, and the site 
is acknowledged by Jews, Moslems, and Christians. The 
existence of a well sunk to a great depth in a place where 
watersprings on the surface are abundant is sufficiently 
remarkable to give this well a peculiar history. It is 
remarkably characteristic of the prudence and forethought 
of the great Patriarch, who, having purchased a parcel of 
ground at the entrance of the vale, secured on his own 
property, by dint of great toil, a perennial supply of water 
at a time when the adjacent watersprings were in the hands 
of unfriendly, if not actually hostile neighbours. 


In the midst of a mass of ruined stones, among which 
are two or three columns still standing, is a vaulted chamber 
about 15 ft. square, and in the floor of the chamber are 
two openings 4 ft. apart, one of which is the proper mouth 
of the well. The other opening is either an accidental 
breach, or has been designedly made in a rough and 
ready way for the convenience of having two mouths, by 
which pitchers could be lowered into the well simulta- 
neously. The true mouth of the well has a narrow opening 
just wide enough to allow the body of a man to pass 
through with arms uplifted, and this narrow neck, which is 
about 4 ft. long, opens out into the well itself, which is 
cylindrically shaped and about 7 ft. 6 in. in diameter. 
The mouth and upper part of the well is built of masonry, 
and the well appears to have been sunk through a mixture 
of alluvial soil and limestone fragments till a compact 
bed of mountain limestone was reached, having horizontal 
strata which could be easily worked, and the interior of 
the well presents the appearance of being lined throughout 
witli rough masonry. 

The well, when examined in 1866, was only 75 ft. 
deep, but there can be no doubt that the original depth 
was much greater, as quantities of rubbish have fallen 
mto the well from the ruins of the buildings that formerly 
covered it, and passers-by for many centuries have probably 
thrown stones into it. Robinson states that the well in 
1838 was 105 ft. deep, and if his measurement is correct, 
debris to a depth of 30 ft. has accumulated in thirty- 
eight years. In 1875 the depth was found by Lieutenant 
Conder to be 75 ft., the same as in 1866. The well 
was undoubtedly sunk to a great depth for the purpose 
of securing, even in exceptionally dry seasons, a supply of 
water, which at great depths would always be filtering 
through the sides of the well and would collect at the 



bottom. When examined in April, 1866, the well was dry, 
but an earthenware pitcher was found at the bottom of the 
well and not broken, which would indicate that water still 
collects in the well at some seasons, as the pitcher would 
have been broken had it fallen upon the stones. 

The vaulted chamber over the well might possibly be 
the crypt of the church f)uilt over tlie well about the fourth 
century.* Arculphus, one of the early travellers in Pales- 
tine, describes the church in the form of a cross and the 
well in the middle ; but by the time of the Crusaders the 
church was destroyed, and subsequent travellers who 
visited the well mention only the ruins around it. 

It would be a matter of the greatest interest if the 
Committee were enabled, through the liberality of Dr. 
Rogers and Miss Peache, not only to clear out the well, 
but to excavate and disclose to view the foundations of one 
of the earliest cruciform churches. It would then be for 
consideration how to give effect to the proposal to surround 
and protect the well with stonework. 

The accompanying woodcut illustrates the state of the 
vault as it appeared nine years ago, but since then many of 
the stones composing it, and probably all the well-cut stones 
in the adjacent ruins, have been removed to supply materials 
for the new Turkisli barrack, situated half a mile distant in 
the direction of Nablus. 

The following is the most recent account of it : — 

Very probably some short account of a recent visit that I 
paid to Nablous may be of some interest to the many 
readers of the Quarterly Statement. The state of Jacob's 

* In the Quarterly Statctncnt, Jan. 1874, p. 6, reference is made to 
the church at Abu Ghosh, named after St. Jerome, where excavations 
have disclosed a crj'pt, forming a complete subterranean church, which 
contains a cave or cistein filled with water. 

{To /cut p. 195. 









Bock a/j^2p- 

^ (Mason ry 

^ J)epfhofWell JSftr. 


ft DictmeCer ^. 6in . 

a. a„ Upeninys 
jn to We 71 



I Plan nf CIturcJt 

- built oi'erjacoii JVrJl 
r '// cleac rilecl iujlrculjilius 

% ,m)^&o 



Well is doubtless well known to the majority of your 
subscribers, even to those who have not themselves visited 
the Holy Land. It has again and again been described by 
the many writers on Palestine, and all have mentioned their 
uisappointment that instead of finding any semblance to a 
well, or anything which could recall the interview of our 
Lord with the woman of Samaria, they have merely found 
a dark irregular hole amid a mass of ruins in a vaulted 
chamber beneath the surface of the ground. I have shared 
this disappointment on many previous visits to Nablous, 
and again, as a fortnight ago I stood with my wife beside 
the spot, it was with great regret that we were so utterly 
unable to picture before us the scene so graphically 
described by the Evangelist. We had clambered down into 
the vault, and were vainly attempting to pee'- into the dark 
hole amid the heaps of stones and rubbish, when we 
chanced to notice, a few feet from the opening, a dark 
crack between the stones. Fancying that possibly it 
might be another opening of the well, we removed some 
stones and earth, and soon were able to trace part of a 
carved aperture in a large slab of stone. Deeply interested 
at fmding thi<;, we cleared away more earth and stones, and 
soon distinguished the circular mouth of the well, though it 
was blocked by an immense mass of stone. Calling to aid 
two men who were looking on, with considerable labour 
we at length managed to remove it, and the opening of the 
well was clear. It is impossible to describe our feelings as 
we gazed down the open well, and sat on that ledge on 
which doubtless the Saviour rested, and felt with our fingers 
the grooves in the stone caused by the roi)es by which the 
water-pots were drawn up. The following day we devoted 
to comi)letely excavating round the opening of the well, and 
laying bare the massive stone which forms its mouth. This 
consists of the hard white limestone of the country, and is 

N 2 



in fair preservation, thougli parts are broken away here and 
there. The annexed rude sketch gives some idea of its 


The exact measurements I also give : — 



Thickness ... 

Height above the pavement 

Breadth of aperture of the well 

Depth of the well ... 


We let a boy down to the bottom, but found nothing of 
any interest, but evidently there is a large accumulation of 
rubbish, I trust that a stone of such intense interest may 













long remain uninjured now that it has been exposed to light. 
— I am, yours faithfully, Charles Wright Barclay. 

The Rev. John Mill in his " Three Months' Residence 
at Nablus," published in 1864, at p. 4.5, states in reference 
to Jacob's Well, that "in 1855, when we first visited this 
place, we measured it as carefully as we could, and found it 
to be 9 ft. in diameter, and a little more than 70 ft. deep. 
But older travellers found it much deeper. . . . On 
my second visit in i860, the mouth of the well was 
completely filled U|>, so that it was v^•ith difficulty I could 
identify the spot where it was. Nor could I learn how this 
had occurred. Some of my friends at Nablus thought that 
the torrents during the rains of the pievious winter were the 
cause ; but others believed that it was done by the inhabitants 
of the little village close by, on account of the well being 
bought by the Greek Church. The well, however, was 
completely hid from sight, to the great disappointment of 
many travellers beside myself. 

"On further inquiry I learnt from the Greek priest tha 
their Church had actually bought the well from the Turkish 
Government, including a plot of ground surrounding it, of 
229 ft. by 180 ft. For this they had paid, he told me, 
70,000 piastres; but another friend, belonging to the same 
community, told me it was at least 100,000." 

Mr. Mill also mentions that the Christians call it Beer 
Saniariyek, the " Samaritan Well," while the Samaritan ; 
themselves call it Beer Jacub, or " Jacob's Well." He also 
points out that it is not an Ai?i (b^), a well of living water, 
but a ber ("^^3.)' ^ cistern to hold rain water. 

XV. The vase of the Temple. 

This little vase which Warren found inserted in a 
receptacle on the rock close to the lowest stone of the 



Temple — S.E. corner— must not be forgotten. The 
late Dr. Birch wrote of it : — 

The little vase which you left accompanies the present 
letter. It is of rather rude shape and coarse terra-cotta, and 
closely resembles some in the British Museum, said to have 
been found in Rachel's tomb at Bethlehem. As there was 

also found at the same site a shell engraved with figures, 
and partly carved, which might be as old as the fourth or 
fifth century B.C., it is just possible that the vase, which 
resembles Egyptian ware in shape, might be as old as that 
period, but there are no data to my knowledge from 
inscriptions on this class of pottery to determine its actual 

There are many other monuments in Palestine, for 
which the reader is referred to the memoirs of the 
survey. Among them arc the synagogues of Galilee 
{see volume called Special Papers, " The Synagogues 


of Galilee," by Sir Charles Wilson) ; the Crusading 
castles {see the memoirs, each under its name) ; the 
Crusaders' churches, the tombs, the great ruined 
towns and fortresses, such as Caesarea, Athlit, Masada, 
Arak-el Emir, Amman, Petra, Tyre, &c., the Samaritan 
Temple and its documents, the Phoenician remains in 
the north, the aqueducts, ancient roads, &c., all of 
which may be found fully described in the memoirs. 

We have thus briefly run through the principal 
gains to our knowledge of the country, acquired by the 
Society during the last twenty years. It will be 
acknowledged that we have been enabled to pour a 
flood of light upon almost every head of enquiry 
possible to the Biblical student. We shall presently 
consider the subject of what remains to be done. 

Among other things that the Society has accom- 
plished is the awakening of a general interest over 
the whole of Christendom in the subject. There 
have been founded within the last twelve years, an 
American, a German, and a Russian society for the 
exploration of Palestine. The two latter are in 
vigorous life, each with its Journal like ourselves. 
The first is unfortunately defunct. But one of its 
explorers, Dr. Selah Merrill, is still in Jerusalem as 
American Consul, and doing good work for the cause. 

The foundation of the Palestine Pilgrim's Text 
Society is another indication of interest in the whole 
subject. This little society has already issued three 


texts, one of w hich, the Translation of Procopius, on 
the buildint^s of Justinian, is, with its admirable 
dra\vin<^s and \-aluable notes, a production worthy of 
the greatest admiration. It has three others in type 
waiting to be annotated. 

The foundation of the Societe de TOrient Latin, 
directed by M. le Comtc Riant, cannot be attributed 
to English influence, but it is an institution which, 
like the Pilgrims' Text Society, promises to render 
the highest services to the Palestine student. 




In the space of twenty-one years the Society has 
naturally had to lament the loss by death of many 
supporters and friends. Among those who have 
actually worked for the Society in the field we have 
lost four. Mr. Charles F. Tyrwhitt Drake, the first of 
these, who died exhausted by fever and asthma in 
June, 1874, at the early age of 28, at the time 
when his knowledge of the country and the 
people, with a daily increasing grasp of the pro- 
blems awaiting solution, made him of the greatest 
service to the Society's work. The second. Major 
Anderson, R.E., who was with Wilson on the Pre- 
liminary Expedition of 1865, died in the autumn of 
1880, at the comparatively early age of 42. The 
third is the late Rev. F. W. Holland, Vicar of 
Evesham, who had made the Sinai Peninsula his own 
field of study. It was he who carried out the project 
of surveying the Peninsula, which was executed by 
Sir Charles Wilson in the year 1869. He visited the 
country six times. Up to the date of his death, 
which was in the year 1879, he acted with Sir George 
Grove as an hon. secretary of the Society. The last, 


Prof. Edward Henry Palmer, was taken from the 
world by the tragic fate which is still in everybody's 
memory. His loss is one which can never be 

Among the members of the Committee who have 
left us may be mentioned, first, those who were 
distinguished as travellers in Palestine, and writers on 
the Holy Land. These are Dean Stanley, always 
the most sincere friend and supporter of the 
Society, to which he bequeathed a small collection 
of books ; the Rev. George Williams, author of "The 
Holy City "; and Mr. James Fergusson, the author of 
the Theory on the Sacred Sites, which caused so keen 
a controversy. 

His first book on the subject appeared in the year 
1847, and he never swerved, save in some small 
details, from the opinion there laid down, that the 
Dome of the Rock is nothing else than the Basilica of 
Constantine, erected over the Holy Sepulchre. He 
based this opinion upon the drawings of the building 
made by Catherwood. It involved two other theories, 
namcl\% that the Temple must necessarily have stood 
in the south-west corner of the Haram Area, and that 
the present so-called Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
could be nothing but a church built over a site 
fraudulently asserted to be that of the Sepulchre by 
the monks. Nothing that was afterwards discovered 
in the city by Wilson, Warren, Conder, and others, 


ever shook him in this opinion, nor did any of the 
numerous books and arguments, advanced by his 
opponents, ever convince him that he was wrong. 
He died in January of the present year, and it now 
remains to be seen whether any one will be found to 
maintain the theory which he advanced and defended 
so obstinately and with so much success that it has 
been suffered to remain unquestioned for twenty-one 
years in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. We had 
also, at the end of the year 1879, to regret the sudden 
death of Mr. Hepworth Dixon, for some time the 
Chairman of the Executive Committee. 

As to those former members of the Committee 
who were in their lifetime the supporters of the 
Society, to enumerate them is almost to read a roll 
of English worthies of the Victorian age. For in- 
stance, among the long list are the honoured names of 
Archbishop Tait, Bishop Wilberforce, Bishop Jackson, 
Emmanuel Deutsch, Prof Donaldson, Lord Derby, 
Dean Howson, Lord Dunraven, Dr. Keith Johnstone, 
Sir Antonio Panizzi, Lord Lawrence, Sir Moses 
Montefiore, Lord Ossington, Dr. Norman McLeod, 
Dr. Pusey, Earl Russell, Sir Gilbert Scott, Mr. W. 
Spottiswoode, Lord Stratford de Redcliffe, Lord 
Shaftesbury, Lord Strangford, Sir William Tito, Lord 
Zetland, and Mr. W. S. W. Vaux. 




quiry into the manners and customs of the people ; or 
(3) we may pubHsh the MSS., maps, and plans in our 

(i) Survey work. 


We have already accomplished the survey of 
Western Palestine. But nearly the whole of the East, 
together with the North and South, awaits the surveyor. 
The duty of the Committee is clearly marked out by 
their original prospectus, as regards survey work, viz., 
to continue it until not an acre is left which has not 
been surveyed and laid down and not a ruin which 
has not been examined. 

(2) Excavations. 

The only excavations made by the Society are 
those at Jerusalem. There are, however, very many 
other sites which would well repay excavation, and 
it is intended to take up this branch of the work 
seriously as soon as funds allow and opportunity 
occurs. There is, however, one special piece of work 
which is at the present moment most urgent, and lies 
open to us and ready to our hands. It is this. By 
the accident of recent building operations in Jerusalem, 
a portion of a wall was laid bare (it is now covered up 
again) which seems likely to be no other than the 
ancient Second Wall. The portion uncovered was 
120 ft. long, 10 ft. broad, with a rock scarp outside it 
at least 15 ft. deep. Its masonry is exactl}' similar 
to that in "David's To\\er " with the well-known 
marginal draft, such as is found on the lowest courses 
and the more ancient portions of the Temple wall. 

It is on every account desirable that this discovery 
should be at once followed up. The course of the 


second wall involves, among many other important 
things, nothing less than the authenticity of the Holy 
Places. For if it should prove to run in such a 
manner as to include within itself the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre, in that case the whole of the 
traditional sites, the so-called sepulchre itself, with 
all the sacred associations, traditions, and legends 
gathered round it will fall to pieces at once by the 
mere force of that one fact. They could no longer 
be defended even by the stoutest upholder of tradition, 
because one thing is perfectly certain and cannot be 
denied, viz. : that the tomb of Our Lord was without 
the city wall. If, on the other hand, the present and 
traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre is proved to 
have been zvitJiout the Second Wall, then the partisans 
of tradition will be enormously strengthened, and, 
though the battle between the present site as advo- 
cated by George Williams and his following, those who 
advocate the site proposed by Fergusson, and those 
who incline to that proposed by Captain Conder may 
still be carried on, the advantage of early tradition, 
not disproved by excavation, will still remain with the 


It is proper to state that, in the opinion of Herr 

Conrad Schick, who has long resided in the city and 

studied its problems, the Second Wall will be found to 

follow a course (which he has indicated) which will 

not include the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The 


tombs which now exist under the present buildings 
will then be proved to have formed part of a Jewish 
cemetery without the wall, and yet close to it. 

(3) The manners and customs of the people. 

Something has been already done in this direction. 
Observations have been made by Mrs. Finn, Aliss 
Rogers, M. Clermont Ganneau, Mr. Klein, and, so far as 
opportunity occurred, by our own officers. But these 
observations have hitherto been made without method 
and on no scientific principle. The time has now come, 
and the opportunity, when an inquiry can be under- 
taken into the whole field of what we call manners 
and customs, and this, not in Palestine only, but over 
the whole of Syria and the adjacent countries. The 
Committee have placed themselves in communication 
with the Anthropological Society, the Folklore 
Society, and other learned bodies, and with their 
assistance, and the help of Captain Conder, to whom 
belongs the principal credit of the work, they have 
prepared a set of questions covering the religion, 
tradition, folklore, arts, customs, proverbs, &c., of the 
various people inhabiting the country. These ques- 
tions are arranged according to the people for whom 
they are intended. The subscribers of the Society 
were invited at the outset of the work, which has not 
been hurried, to send in questions ; many complied 
with this invitation. Captain Conder wishes to take 
this opportunity of informing those whose questions 


have been given to him, that he believes they will 
all be found, though perhaps in different forms, in the 
questions prepared by him. Thus, though it is most 
important that the (lucstions should serve the 
purpose of Biblical illustration, it is necessary that 
they should not be so put as to suggest a 13iblical 
bearing and therefore an obvious answer. 
questions now ready will be placed in the proper 
hands immediately, and the results will be duly 

(4) Publication of work already done. 
It must be remembered that work is not completed 
until it is published. There is a general tendency 
among the supporters of our enterprise to discontinue 
or to suspend their support at those times when there 
is no party in the field. Now, first of all, the \\ork 
of the Society in the Holy Land itself, as may be 
seen from the Quarterly Statement, is never stopped. 
Grants are always required for some piece of work or 
other. But, secondly, when the results come home 
they have to be published or they are useless. 

Now there is at present in the hands of the Com- 
mittee, a whole mass of work which loudly calls for 
publication. It consists of — 

I. Captain Conder's Survey of Eastern Pales- 
tine. This amounts to as much letterpress 
as would fill a volume of the " Survey of 
Western Palestine," w ith hundreds of draw- 


ings and places. The cost of publication 
would be about ^1,000. 

2. M. Lecomte's drawings, made for the Com- 

mittee under M. Clermont Ganneau's super- 
vision. There are about 700 of these, mostly 
quite small, representing architectural details 
and ruins. They are drawn with extreme 
delicacy and beauty, and form a most 
remarkable addition to the archaeology of 
the country. The cost of publication would 
be about ^1,200. 

3. Mr. Chichester Hart's "Memoir on the Natural 

History of the Wady Arabah." Tlie illus- 
trations for this memoir are already drawn. 
It would not cost more than about /■200. 

4. We are also expecting another instalment of 

work from Herr G. Schumacher, in addition 
to that already published under the title 
" Across the Jordan." 

5. The answers to the questions about to be sent 

to the Holy Land will also have to be pub- 
lished when they have been arranged and 

The Committee, therefore, think that they may 
fairly ask their friends to mark the twenty-first anni- 
versary of the foundation of the Society by raising 
the sum necessary to accomplish the above objects, 

viz., — to recapitulate: — ■ 



1. The prosecution of the discovery of the 

Second Wall, or of the wall which may 
prove to be the Second Wall. 

2. The promotion of the inquiry into the 

manners and customs of the various people 
inhabiting the Bible lands. 

3. The publication of the various MSS. now in 

the hands of the Committee. 
The history of the Society has now been briefly 
treated from the beginning. It has been shown that 
the Committee have been steadily at work without 
intermission for twenty-one years. The Biblical 
gains have been so great that the whole of the 
topography and geography of the country have been 
reconstructed ; as regards Jerusalem, we now know 
and understand the magnificence on which Josephus 
dwells with what was previously believed to be 
l)atriotric exaggeration ; everything which has been 
examined shows the minute accuracy, so far as places 
are concerned, of the historical portions of the Bible, 
as, for instance, in the case of many towns men- 
tioned in the Book of Joshua, sites have been re- 
covered simply by observing the order in which they 
are placed. Then, including those finds which are 
not the property, so to speak, of the Society, we have 
in the Moabite Stone and the Siloam inscription 
documents contemporary with the kings of Judah and 
Israel, and written in the same character (from which 


our own is descended) that was employed by the writers 
of the Old Testament books ; in the stone of Herod's 
Temple we have actually one of those boundary 
stones which stood in the courts, trodden by the feet 
of Our Lord ; in the Gezer inscriptions we have the 
ancient town boundaries ; in the Head of Hadrian we 
have the very image which, placed upon the site of the 
Holy of Holies, finally provoked the Jews to their last 
and most desperate revolt ; in the cromlechs and stone 
circles of the east, and in the high places of the west 
we have the remains of the old sun worship, which 
the Israelites were commanded to drive out of the land ; 
we can for the first time follow David in his wanderings, 
and the campaigns of the Jewish warriors, Judges and 
Kings ; we know the birds, the beasts, the reptiles, and 
the fishes of the land ; we know the trees, the plants, 
and the flowers ; nay, we know the very rocks, the 
foundations of the land. More than this, and out- 
side the Bible, the country is covered with remains 
of Canaanite, Israelite, Phcenician, Greek, Roman, 
Christian, Saracen, Frank and Mohammedan. Their 
cemeteries, temples, synagogues, and castles are 
dotted over the whole country. We can read these 
monuments so as to discern between all these people. 
We can assign to the Crusader the stones which he 
dressed for his castle ; to the Jew, his synagogue; to 
the early Christian, his hermitage ; and to the 

Saracen, his khan ; to each tomb we can assign a 

O 2 


class and the period of its first construction, whether 
it be the splendid monument known as Joshua's 
Tomb, which was certainly constructed for some 
prince in Israel, or the tomb in the garden near the 
Place of Stoning, which is the Hill of the Skull, 
where, as Captain Condcr thinks, is the " new Tomb," 
in which no man had lain until there was brought 
thither a certain dead Body from a cross, and a great 
stone was rolled across the door, and two women sat 
weeping without. 




1865. Foundation of the Society, June 22nd, 1865. 

Patron — The Queen. President — The Archbishop 
of York. Hon. Treas. — John Abel Smith and 
Robert CulHng Hanbury. Hon. Sec— George 

Drawing up of the Original Prospectus. 

Meetings and Letters to the Papers. 

Organisation of First Expedition. 

1866. First Expedition of Captain Wilson, R.E., and 

Lieutenant Anderson, R.E. 

Publications — Captain Wilson's Letters and 

1867. Consideration of question whether the survey or 

the excavations at Jerusalem should be next 
carried on. 
Despatch of Lieutenant Warren with a party of non- 
commissioned officers of Royal Engineers for the 
1868.1 Excavations at Jerusalem. 
1869. ? Discovery of the Moabite stone. 
1870. -I Discovery (by M. Clermont Ganneau) of the Stone 
of the Temjile. 
Survey of Sinai. 
Return of Captain Warren. 

Publications — Lieutenant Warren's Letters, L- 


Comniencement of Quarterly Statement., 
March, 1869. 
1871. Palmer's Journey through the Desert of the Tih. 

Restilts — Departure of the survey Expedition, 

Publications— Pahner's Report 

Warren on the Plains of PhiHstia. 
Pahner's Notes on Lebanon. 
Papers by Hyde Clarke, Clermont Ganneau 
Palmer's Hist, of the Haram Esh Sherif. 
First Paper on the Hamath Inscriptions. 
All in the Quarterly Statetnent. 

iHf2. First year of the survey — Captain Stewart is com- 
pelled by ill-health to resign — Lieutenant Conder 
takes his place — Despatch of an American Ex- 
]jedition to survey Eastern Palestine. 

Results — One thousand square miles surveyed; 
identification of Tell Jezer with Gezer ; 
discovery of a great aqueduct from the 
souterrain at the Convent of the Sisters of 
Zion (now considered by Sir Charles 
Wilson as the Pool of Bethcsda). 
Publications — Arabic Names and Plans, by 
Captain Warren. 
East of Jordan, Expedition to, by Rev. A. 

E. Northey. 
Meteorology, by James Glaisher, F.R.S. 
Palestine and Cuneiform Inscriptions, by 

George Smith. 
Temple Middoth, Tract on the Measure- 
ments of. 

All in the Quarterly Statement. 
Our Work in Palestine. First edition. 
1873. Continuation of survey — 2,000 square miles accom- 

A'FFENDIX /. 21 : 

plished — Special surveys of Athlit, Caesarea, 

Miamas, Kuliinsavvieh, Tantura, El Midieh, Deir 

Joshua's tomb. 
Discovery of a Samaritan inscription (Deuteronomy 

iv. 29-31) at Gaza. 
First publication, of the Rock Levels of Jerusalem. 
The " Moabite Pottery " forgery^ 
Report on the Baalbek Ruins, by Captain Conder. 

Papers- in the Quarterly Statement — ■ 

" Ebal and G-orizim," by Captain Wilson. 
The Comparativ-e Chronology of Palestine, 

Egypt, and Assyria, by F. R. Conder. 
Proposed Restoration of the Hamath 

Notes on Jerusalem Discoveries, by C. W. 


1874. Archaeological Mission of M. Clermont Ganneau 
(Nov. 1873 to Nov. 1874). 

Results — Discovery of early Christian sarco- 
phagi ; the Head of Hadrian ; identifica- 
tion of Stone of Bohan \ the Cave of 
Adullam ; opening of tombs at the Khur- 
bet Kurman ; collection of legends ; indi- 
cation of distinctive character of stones 
cut by the Crusaders \ excavating a sepul- 
chral cave near the Mount of Olives ; dis- 
covery and plan of an ancient cemetery 
N.E. of Jerusalem ; identification of ]^lount 
Scopus ; discovery of the Moabite for- 
geries ; excavations in the Haram ; exami- 
nation of the Kubbet es Sakhra ; excava- 
tion of rock-cut chambers near the Ecce 
Homo Arch ; identification of the Forest 


of Harith ; flint implements near Jerusalem ; 
Kurn Surtabeh and its associations ; dis- 
covery of the "Boundary of Gezer"; dis- 
covery of an ancient Arabic inscription in 
the Haram ; the "Vase of Bezetha," &c., 
together with plans, sections, drawings, 
&c., by M. Lecomtc (still unpublished). 
Continuation of the Survey (3,000 square miles 
completed) — Examination of the cave called 
Mugharet Umm el Tuweimeh, plans of Fureidis, 
Kusr el Yahud, Kusr el Hajlah, Deir el Kelt, 
Kalaat Hathrurah, site of Gilgal, aqueducts in the 
Plain of Jericho, Suk Wady Barada, El Midieh 
(iModin), Rh. Ikbala, Yerzeh, Kaukab el Hawa, 
Beisan, identification of Antipatris and TEnon, 
discovery of rude stone monuments, &c. 
Death of Mr. C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake. 

Quarterly Statement — Mr, James Glaisher on 
Meteorolcg)' of Palestine. Exposure of 
the Moabite forgeries. 

1875. Continuation of the survey up to July, when an 
attack upon the parly at Safed caused their with- 
drawal from the country. 

Results — Identificationsof Alt- xandrium, Azckah, 
the Rock Etam, Chozeba, the tower of Ader. 
Maarath, Arab, Cliff of Ziz, Zanoah, Zi])h 
Hareth, the Valley of Blessing, Bezeih 
K.ock of Maon, Hachilah, Debir, Shocoh. 
Examination and special surveys of El 
Ramah, Mugharet Suffa, ISIakkedah, Masada 
(iath, Keslah, (ierar, Umm el Amdan, Aziz, 
Susieh Kh. Khoreisa, Kh. el Mintar, Kh. 
Bir el Seba, and El Ghurra ; examination 
of Pilate's Aqueduct ; Levitical boundary 


of Eshtemoa; essays on the site of Nob, 
David's outlaw life, the rock scarp of Zion, 
mediaeval topography of Palestine, the 
tempie of Herod, the tomb of David, the 
site of Adullam, ancient Jewish graves, and 
the Arabs in Palestine. 

Excavations on Mount Zion, and discovery of part 

of the Frst Wall. 
Journey of Mr. Greville Chester to er Ruad. 

1876. In this year the whole party remained at home, and 

were engaged in office work. The amount of 
survey work brought home covered the whole of 
Western Palestine with the exception of 1,400 
square miles. 
The following important papers were communicated 
to the Committee by Captain Conder :— 

On the Early Christian Topography of Palestine ; 
on Rock-cut Tombs ; on Proposed Tests 
for the Survey ; on the First Traveller in 
Palestine ; on Palestine before Joshua ; on 
the Language of the Native Peasantry ; on 
the Fertility of Palestine ; on Samaritan 
Topography, &c. 

1877. The survey of Western Palestine was resumed by 

Lieutenant Kitchener, R.E., and completed in the 
teeth of difficulties, owing to the general excite- 
ment and the chances of immediate war. 
The following papers were communicated by 
Captain Conder : — 

On Megiddo ; on Christian and Jewish Tradi- 
tions ; on the Boundaries of Ephraim, 
Manasseh and Issachar ; on Nob ; on the 
Moslem Mukams, and others. 


M. Clermont Ganneau contributed a valuable 
paper on the tombs undc-r the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, and Sir Charles 
Wilson various notes on recent discoveries. 

1878. Office work and preparation of maps and memoirs. 

Publications — Papers on many points connected 
with the survey, especially on Joshua's 
Tomb ; on Architecture in Palestine ; the 
Site of Ai ; the Survey of Galilee, (S:c. 

Discovery of the Stone of Bethphage. 

Publication of Captain Conder's Tent Work in 

1879. Preparation of memoirs and maps. 

Publications— On the Transference of Sites, by 
William Simpson ; on the Fellaheen of 
Palestine, by A\'m. Finn ; on a Journey on 
Foot through Arabia Petrsea, by F. W. 
Holland ; on Modern Researches in 
Palestine, by Selah Merrill ; on a Journey 
into Moab, by Conrad Schick. 

Death of Mr. Hepworth Dixon. 

1880. Publication of the Great Map, and reduction for the 

engraving of the small map — Printing of memoirs. 
Publications — Klein's Journey into Moab; 
Greville Chester's Journey through the 
Cities of the Delta, and Examination oi 
the Lacus Serbonicus; Sir Charles Wilson's 
Treatise on the Masonry of the Haram Wall. 
Discovery — The Inscription of the Pool of Siloam. 

1881. Commencement of the survey of Eastern Palestine. 

Discoveries— lr\scr\\A\on of Baalbek ; Kadesh ol 
the Hittites ; inscription at Homs ; the 
Egyptian harbour of Tyre ; Bethulia, 
the Mountain of the Scape-goat ; Ain 


Kadis ; the Pool in Gibeon ; Kirjath 
Jearim ; Beth Haccerem. 

Publications — The Decipherment of the Inscrip- 
tion in the Pool of Siloani, by Rev. Pro- 
fessor Sayce ; on the Old City of Dera'a, 
by Rev. Professor Porter ; Sun Worship 
in Syria; the Topography of the Exodus; 
the Manners and Customs of the Fella- 
heen; the discovery of Ain Quadis, or 
Kadis by Professor Trumbull ; on the 
Hittites, by W. St. Chad. Boscawen. 

First volume of the Memoirs of the " Survey of 
Western Palestine," issued this year. 

Death of the Rev. F. W. Holland and Major 
Anderson, R.E. 

1882. Completion of the first 500 square miles of Eastern 
Forced return of Captain Conder. 

Discoveries — A remarkable Sassanian building at 
Amman ; over 600 names formed and 
noted ; examination of 200 ruins ; 400 
cromlechs sketched ; 36 photographs 
taken ; identification of the " Field of 
Zophim ;" the Ascent of Luhith, Jazer, 
Sibmah, and Minnith ; another gate in 
the eastern wall. 

Examination of the Hebron Haram by the 
Royal Party, accompanied by Sir Charles 
Wilson and Captain Conder. 

Publications — Archjeological notes by M. 
Clermont Ganneau ; the Prince's 
Journey through the Holy Land ; Cap- 
tain Conder's Reports and Papers, &c. 

Death of Professor Palmer. 


1883. Preparation of map and memoirs of Eastern 


Publications — Publication of the " Survey of 
Western Palestine," Memoirs, Vols. II. 
and III. ; Special Papers, Name Lists ; 
Papers on the Exodus, the Siloam inscrip- 
tions, the Hamath inscriptions, the Sha- 
pira MSS., the climate of Jerusalem, &c. 

1884. The Geological Expedition — Left England Oct. 18, 

1883, returned in the spring of 1884; survey of 
Wady Arabah by Lieut-Colonel Kitchener, R.E. 

Publications — Completion of the Memoirs of 
Western Palestine, by publication of the 
Jerusalem volumes and portfolio of plans; 
Conder's " Heth and Moab ; " Conder's 
"Tent Work in Palestine." Cheap 
edition ; Papers in the Quarterly State- 
fnent by Sir Charles Wilson, Captain 
Conder, Mr. Lawrence Oliphant, &c. 

Journey of Mr. Oliphant into the Jaulan. 

1885. Survey of a portion of country in the Jaulan 

by Herr Schumacher {" Across the Jordan ") ; 
Journey of Mr. Guy Le Strange in Eastern 

Notes by Mr. Laurence Oliphant on the Jaulan. 
Publications — Papers by Canon Tristram, 
General Charles Gordon, Captain 
Conder, Sir John Coode, Messrs. 
Greville Chester, Selah Merrill, W. F. 
Birch, Tomkins, Baker-Greene. 




N.B. — The Roman Numerals I., II., &zc., refer to the Sheets 

of the ]\Iap. 

1. Abel Meholah, i Kings iv. 12. Jerome (Onomasticon 

S.V., Abel Maula) places this 10 miles south of Scytho- 
polis " in Aulone " {i.e., the Jordan Valley) which 
indicates the present 'Ain Helweh. (XII.) 

2. Abez. Joshua xix. 20. Probably the present ruin el 

Beida, at the north end of the plain of Esdraelon. 
The Arabic exactly corresponds to the Hebrew with 
the same meaning, "white." (VIII.) 

3. ^(t/^j-/^^//^. Joshua xix. 25. Wrongly placed by Robinson 

near Banias, probably the present village el Yasif, 
north-east of Acre. It is often mentioned in Egyptian 
records, and the proposed site agrees both with these 
and the Biblical indications of situation. (III.) 

4. Adami, Joshua xix. 33. The present ruin Adiiia/i, on 

the plateau south-west of the Sea of Galilee, in a satis- 
factory position with relation to towns noticed in the 
context. (IX.) 

5. Adasa, Kh 'Adaseh. (XVII.) 

6. Adullam; Aid el Mia (Ganneau). (XXI.) 

7. Aenon, 'Ainun (Robinson) (XII.) 

8. Ai, Haiya. (XVII.) 

9. Amad, Joshua xix. 26. Apparently the ruin called 

el 'Am lid, north of Acre, in correct relative position. 


10. Anah, Joshua xv. 50. The ruin 'Auab, west of edh 

Dhaheriyeh, incorrectly fixed by Robinson at Deir esh 
Shems, east of the same. (XXV.) 

11. Ana/iarath, Joshua xix. 19. The village en NaWirah, 
in correct relative position to other towns of Issachar. 

12. Anon, I Chronicles vi. 73. The village ^An'in, in the 

hills west of the plain of Esdraelon, in a satisfactory 
position within the border of Manasseh. (VIII.) 

13. Aner, i Chronicles vi. 70. i'ossibly the present village 

Allar, in the hills south-west of the plain of Esdraelon. 

14. Arab, Joshua xv. 32. The present ruin er Rabiyeh in 

suitable relative situation. (XXI.) 
ic,. Arc/ii,'Ain'Arik. (XVII.) 

16. Ataroih Adar, ed Darieh. (XVII.) 

17. Baalat/i, Joshua xix. 44; i Kings ix, 18; VIII Ant. 

vi. I. Probably the present village Be/a'hi, in a suit- 
able position we.:t of Bethhoron and commanding the 
main road to Jerusalem. (XIV.) 

18. Baal Shalisha. 2 Kings iv. 42. Probably the present 

village Kefr Thilth, in suitable situation in the territory 
of Ephraim on the lower hills. The Arabic Thiltli is 
derived from the Hebrew Shalish ("three "). (XIV.) 

19. Bahurim, 'Almit. (XVII.) 

20. Berea, Bireh. (XVII.) 

21. Betai, Joshua xix. 25. Is identified by Eusebius 

(Onomasticon s.v., Bathnai), with a village, Beth Beten, 
8 miles east of Acre. This seems to indicate the 
\\\\:{gQ: el Baneh. (IV.) 

22. Bcthabara, 'Aba rah. (IX.) 

23. Beth B)agon, Joshua xix. 27. Probably the present ruin 

Till Uauk, in correct relative position near the mouth 
of the river Belus. (Compare Dagon or Docus, near 
Jericho, now 'Ain Duk.) (\'.) 


24. Beth Shemesh (of Issachar), Joshua xix, 22. Possibly 

the ruined site ^ Ain esh Shemslyeh, in the Jordan Valley, 

25. Bethuiia, MitJiilia. (VIII.) 

26. Beto)nesihain (Judith iv. 6). The present ruin Massln. 


27. Bezek, Judges i. 5. Probably the ruin Bezka/i, souih of 

Lydda. (XIII.) 

28. Bezek, I Samuel xi. 8. Bezik. (XII.) 

29. Calvary\ el Heidhemiyeh. (XVII.) 

30. Charashiiji (Valley), i Chronicles iv. 14, mentioned in 

connection with Lod and Ono (Nehemiah xi. 35). The 
name survives at Khiirbet Hirsha, on the bank of the 
great valley east of Lydda. (XVII.) 

31. Chezlb, Genesis xxxviii 5; Joshua xv. 44. The name 
appears to linger at the spring 'Ain Kezbe/i, near Beit 
Netdf, in a satisfactory position in relation to other 
towns of the same group. Jerome (Onomasticon s.v.) 
makes Chasbi a ruined site near AduUam, which agrees. 

32. Clioba or Chobai, Judith iv. 4. The Peutinger Tables 
place Coabis 12 miles south of Scythopolis. This 
points to the ruin called el Alekhobby, on the ancient 
road from Shechem. The name has the meaning 
" hiding place." (XII.) 

12,. Cbozcba, 1 Chronicles iv. 22. Possibly the ruin 
Kuieziba, north-east of Hebron. (XXI.) 

34. Dannah ("low ground"), Joshua xv. 49. Probably the 

village Idhnah in the low hills. The position ai)pears 
suitable. (XXI.) 

35. Debir, edh Dhaheriyeh. (XXV.) 

36. Diblath, Ezekiel vi. 14. Apparently the village Dibl, 

in Upper Galilee, unless it be an error for Riblah. 


37. Ebenezer, possibly Deir Abau* (XVII.) 

38. Edrei, Joshua xix. 37. Apparently the present village 
Y'ater. The relative position is suitable, and the 

letters T and D often interchanged. (IV.) 

39. Eleasa, The ruin IPasa. 

40. E/eph, Joshua xviii. 28. The present village Li/ta, 
west of Jerusalem. The situation agrees with the 
boundary of Judah. See p. 10. 

41. Efon, Joshua xix. 43. Probably the present village, 
JSeit Ellii. The relative situation is satisfactory. 

42. Elon Beth Hanan ("plain of 13. Hanan "), I Kings iv. 
9. Probably the village Beit 'Ajuhi, in the low hills 
east of Lydda. The situation agrees with the context. 

43. Emmaiis, possibly Khamasa. (XVII.) 

44. Elfekeh, Joshua xix. 44. Apparently Beit Likia, in 
the territory of Dan. In the list of the victories of 
Sennacherib (Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 302-305), the 
" plains of Eltekeh" are mentioned with towns of Dan. 
This agrees with the situation of the modern village. 

45. Enam. Joshua xv. 34. Possibly the ruin '^////;, in the 
low hills south-west of Jerusalem. The relative 
situation appears satisfactory. The change of N to L 
and M to N is not unusual. (XVII.) 

46. Engannim (of Judah), Joshua xv. 34. Apparently the 
present ruin Uiiim Jhia. The relative situation is 
satisfactory. (XVI.) (Clermont Ganneau.) 

47. Enhaddah, Joshua xix. 21. Probably the present ruin 
Kefr Adan, south-west of the Plain of Esdraelon. The 
situation appears probable. (VIII.) 

* M. C. Ganneau identified Deir Abau with the Abel of ]!eth 
Shemesh. The identification with the Ebenezer of the Ononia^ticon 
was firbt suggested by Captain Conder. 


48. Eshean, Joshua xv. 52. Possibly the ruin es Shnia, 
near Dumah (Domeh), south of Hebron. The situation 
is satisfactory, and the site ancient. (XXI.) 

49. Esora, Judith iv. 4. Probably the village 'Asireh, north 
ofShechem. The situation is suitable. (XI) 

50. Etam. 2 Chronicles xi. 6. The present ruin ' Aitun, 
south-west of Hebron. The situation agrees with the 
context. (XX.) 

51. ^/«;« (Rock). Beit'Atab. (XVH.) 

52- Ether, Joshua xv. 42. Probably the r\i\neVAtr, near 
Beit Jibrin, on the west. The situation appears satis- 
factory. (XX.) 

53. Gcil/i'ii, I Samuel xxv. 44 ; Isaiah x. 30. Possibly the 
village Beit Jala near Bethlehem. (XVII.) 

54. Gedera/i, Joshua xv. 36 (mentioned in the Ono- 
masticon, s.v. Gedor, as 10 miles from Eleutheropolis, 
on the road to Diospolis), the important ruin oijedireh. 
The situation appears to agree with the context. 

55. Gederah (of Benjamin), i Chronicles xii. 4. The 
present xum/edireh, north of Jerusalem. (XVH.) 

56. Gederot/i, Joshua xv. 41. Probably from its situation 
the present village Katra/i, near Yebnah, as proposed 
also by Colonel Warren, R.E. (XVI.) 

57. Gezer, Teil Gezer {C Ga.nne?i.n). (XVI.) 

58. Gtbbethon, Joshua xix. 44. Probably the present 
village Kibbiah, at the foot of the hills near Lydda. The 
situation agrees with the context. (XIV.) 

59. Gibea/i, Joshua xviii. 28. The present xumjibia, in 
the territory of Benjamin. (XVH.) 

60. Gibeah-ha-Elohim, i Samuel x. 5 : and i Samuel xv. 3. 
Now Jab' a. 

61. Gibeah Phinehas. ^Aivertah. (XII.) 

62. Gilead Mount. The name exists in ]V. Jaliid. (IX.) 



6z. Cilgal. Theruin of Jiljulieh. (XVIII.) 

64. Giloh, Joshua xv. 51. Probably the xmn Jala in the 

Hebron Mountains. The situation appears to agree 

with the context. (XXI.) 
6s. Hac/nlah{li\\\). l^ov.' el A'o/a/i. (XXI.) 

66. Hammon, Joshua xix. 28. Apparently the ruin Hima, 
south-east of Tyre. The situation appears to be satis- 
factor>'. (III.) 

67. HannatJwn, Joshua xix. 14. On the boundary of 
Zebulon and Naphtali. The present village Kefr 'Anan. 

68. Haphraipi, Joshua xix. 14. In the Onomasticon, s.v., 
the village Affarea is placed 6 miles north of Legio {el 
Lejjiin) ; this fixes it at the ancient ruined site el 
Farnyeh, which appears to be a suitable position for 
the Biblical town. (VIII) 

69. JIareth, now Kharas. (XXI.) 

70. Ha7'od. Yo%%\\i\^''Ai7t el Jemm^am. (IX.) 

71. ^flrst'r, Joshua xi. i. i^fl'/zv//, near Robinson's site. (IV.) 

72. Hazor, Nehemiah xi. 2)Z- Evidently the ruin Hazzur 
north of Jerusalem, (XVII.) 

73. Horcm, Joshua xix. 38. Apparently the ruin Harah. 
The situation seems possible. (IV.) 

74. Hozah, Joshua xix. 29. Apparently the present ruin 
Ozziyeh, on the coast south of Tyre. The situation is 
satisfactory, and the changes of 'Ain for Kheth and of 
Zain for Tzadi, are both recognised. (III.) 

75. Ijon ("ruin"), i Kings xv. 20. Possibly Khiydvi, in 
the Merj 'Ajiin, west of Banias. The name survives 
latter title, but the former may be a corruption and 
represent the exact site. (II.) 

76. /r/>eel, ]oshua. xviii. 27. Probably the village /^d/dl, 
north of Jerusalem. The name is derived from a 
similar root, and the situation is satisfactory. (XVII.) 


77. Jabneel, Joshua xix. 33. A town of Naphtali stated 
in the Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah i. i) to have been 
called at a later period Caphar Yama. This indicates 
ruin Yenuna, and the situation agrees with that of the 
other towns in this group. (VI.) 

78. Janoah, 2 Kings xv. 29. The present village Yaniih 
in the hills south-east of Tyre. The situation appears 
satisfactory as within the territory of Naptali. There 
is a second YanuJi further south. (11.) 

79. Janum, Joshua xv. 53. Probably the village Beni 
Nairn, east of Hebron. The situation appears to 
agree with the context. (XXI.) 

80. Jeshanah, 2 Chronicles xiii. 19. The situation points 
to the identification of this site with the ancient village 
'Ain Sinia. (XIV.) (Clermont Ganneau.) 

81. Jeshtia, Nehemiah xi. 26. Probably the present ruin 
Sa7m, east of Beersheba. The situation is relatively 
satisfactory. (XXV.) 

82. /ethlah, Joshua xix. 42. Probably the ruin Beit Till, 
in the low hills west of Jerusalem. The situation 
appears probable. (XVII.) 

S3. Joktheel, Joshua xv. 38. Belonging to a group of 
which little is yet known. Possibly the large ruin 
Kntlaneh, south of Gezer. The words are from similar 
roots. (XVI.) 

84. Kedesh (in Issachar), i Chronicles vi. 72. Possibly 
the ancient site Tell Abu Kndeis near Lejjun. (VIII.) 

85. Kibzaim, Joshua xxi, 22. The name is radically 
identical with that of Tell Abu Kabfis, near Bethel. 
The situation is not impossible. (XVII.) 

86. Kirjatli, Joshua xviii. 28. The present Kuriet el 
'Anab is more generally known to the natives as 
Kurieh. The situation agrees well for Kirjath of 
Benjamin, but not for Kirjath Jearim. (XVII.) 

P 2 


87. Kirjathjcarim. Probably 'Erma. (XVII.) 

88. Lac/iis/i, Joshua x. 3. (In the Onomasticon, s.v., this 
city is placed 7 Roman miles south of Eleutheropolis 
B. Jibrin.) 'I'he site of Tell el Hesy nearly agrees 
with this, and is more satisfactory than Utii/n Lakis 
proposed by Robinson. The identification supposes 
the change of Caph to Kheth, of which \ve *have an 
accepted instance in the case of Michmash. (XX.) 

89. LaJwiam, Joshua xv. 40. Possibly the ruins el Lahiri, 
near Beit Jibrin. The situation appears satisfactory, 
and the site is ancient. (XX.) 

90. Lasharon, Joshua xii. 18. Apparently in Lower 
Galilee. Possibly the ruin Saroiia, west of the Sea of 
Galilee. Jerome (Onomasticon, s.v.) says that the 
plain east of Tabor was called Sharon in his time. 

{VI. ) 

91. Liiz, Judges i. 26. Possibly the ruin Lueizeh, west of 
Banias, on the border of the Hittite country. (II.) 

92. Maarath, Joshua xv. 59. Probably from its relative 
position the present village Beit Ummar {the. Bethamari 
of the Onomasticon.) (XXI.) 

93. Madjna>niah, Joshua xv. 31. Possibly the ruin U/ntii 
Deimnch, north of Beersheba. The situation appears 
satisfactory. (XXIV.) 

94. Madon, Joshua xi. i. Apparently in Lower Galilee, 
perhaps the ruin Madiii close to Hattin. (VI.) 

95. Ma/ianeh Dan, near 'Erma. (XVII.) 

96. Makkedah, el Mughar (Warren). (XVI.) 

97. Manahath, i Chronicles viii. 6. Possibly the village 
Malhah, south-west of Jerusalem, which appears to be 
the Manocho of Joshua xv. 60 (inserted passage in 
LXX). The change of L for N is common. 

9S. Maralah, Joshua yS\. 11. According to the descrip- 
tion of the boundary of Zebulon, this would occupy 


about the position of the present village Malid. The 

L and R are easily convertible. (VIII.) 
99. Mearah, Joshua xiii. 4. Apparently Mogheiriyeh, 

north of Sidon. 
100. Megiddo, possibly Mujedd'a. (IX.) 
loi. Meronoth, i Chronicles xxvii. 30. Possibly the ruin 

Marrhia, in the Hebron hills. (XXI.) 

102. Mis/ieal^ Joshua xix. 26. Probably the ruin MahMi, 
near Acre. The situation is suitable for a town of 
Asher. (III.) 

103. Mozah, Joshua xviii. 26. According to the Jerusalem 
Talmud, was called Kolonia. A ruin> called Beit 
Mizzeh exists near Kolonia, west of Jerusalem, in a 
suitable situation. (XVII.) (C. F. T. Drake.) 

104. iV^d'Wd'//, Joshua XV. 41. Probably iVa'^«^//, south of 
Ramleb, as proposed by Colonel Warren, R.E. The 
situation is suitable. (XVI.) 

105. Nahallal, Joshua xix. 15. According to the Jerusalem 
Talmud (Megilla i. i) this place was called, at a later 
period, Mahlul. This seems to indicate the village 
'Ain Ma/iii, in a suitable position. (VI.) 

106. Nebo, Ezra ii. 29. Perhaps NiWa, south of Jerusalem. 

107. iV^7>/ (Han-N'aial), Joshua xix. 27. The ruin Y'anin 
is found in the required position. The change in the 
position of the guttural and of N for L is not unusual. 

108. Ah'keb, Joshua xix. 33. The Jerusalem Talmud 
(Megilla i. 1) gives the later name of this site as 
Siadetha. This points to the ruin Seiyada on the 
plateau west of the Sea of Galilee, a position agreeing 
with the context. (VI,) 

109. Nep/iioa/i, Joshua xv. 9 (a spring). The Talmud of 
Babylon (Yoma 31a) identifies this with the Kn Klam, 


whence an aqueduct led to the Temple. This indicates 
'Ain 'Atan, south of Bethlehem. See p. lo. (XVII.) 
no. C^/Z/zv?//, Judges vi. ii. Probably Ferata, near Shechem, 
the ancient name of which was Ophrah (see Samaritan 
Chronicle). (XI.) 

111. Piratlio)i, Judges xij. 15, and Pharathoni (i Mace. ix. 
50). Possibly Fe'ron, west of Shechem. The loss of 
the T is not unusual, and the present name retains the 
guttural. (XI.) 

112. Rahbah, Joshua xv. 60. Possibly the ruin Rjibba, west 
ofBeit Jibrin. (XXL) 

113. Rabbith, Joshua xix. 20. The present village 7?<7/^«, 
south-east of the plain of Esdraelon, appears to be in a 
suitable position. (XII.) 

114. Rakkon ("shore") Joshua xix. 46. The situation of 
Tell er Rakkeit aj^jjears suitable, north of Jaffa, near 
the mouth of the river Aujeh (probably Mejarkon). 

115. 6)2^/^, Joshua xix. 10. The Syriac version reads Asdod, 
and the LXX reads Sadouk (Vat. MS.). The original 
may be thought to have been Sadid, in which case Tell 
Sliadud occupies a very probable position for this site 
(compare Maralah). (VI IJ.) 

116. 6'^cfl'ra//, Joshua XV. 61. In the Judean desert. Possibly 
the ruin S/kkf/i, east of Bethany. (XVII.) 

117. Scchu, ^rohsXAy Suzueckeh. (XVII.) 

118. ^V;/t'// (Rock), IVady Suwciiut. (XVII.) 

119. S/iaaraim, Joshua xv. 36. The rmn St aire k, west oi 
Jerusalem, occupies a suitable position. (XVIJ.) 

120. Skai/iir, Joshua xv. 48. Probably the ruin 6ir5;//<'r(7//, 
west of Uhaheriyeh, the situation being suitable to the 
context. (XXIV.) 

121. Skartiken, ]os\\\\:{ xix. 6. Vroh7vh\y Tell esh Skert^ak. 
The position is suitable, and the conversion of the 

APPENDIX 11. 231 

guttural Kheth to 'Ain is of constant occurrence, as is 

also the loss of the final N. (XXIV.) 
122. Sorek (Valley). The name 6'//'r//C' was found applying 

to a ruin north of this valley, as mentioned in the Ono- 

masticon. (XVII.) 
I 23. Thininatha., Joshua xix. 43. Generally identified with 

Timnah of Judah, appears more probably to be Tibneh, 

north-east of Lydda, on the border of Dan. (XIV.) 

124. Timnath Ueres, K.q{x Yla.ri'a. (XIV.) 

125. Tiphs/iah,i:ak.Si\\. (XIV). 

126. Tirzah, Teiasir. (XII.) 

127. Umniah, Joshua xix. 30. The ruin 'Alma occupies a 
suitable position in the territory of Asher. The L 
represents the Hebrew M and the guttural is preserved. 

128. Uzzen S/ierah, i Chronicles vii. 24. Mentioned with 
Bethhoron. Possibly Beit Sira, south-west of the site 
ofBethhoron. (XVII.) 

129. Zrt'rt'/zrt'//;/, Bessum. (VI.) 

130. Zartanah, i Kings iv. 12. Mentioned as "beneath 
Jezreel." Probably the large site of Tell Sdretn, near 
Beisan, (IX.) 

131. Zereda, i Kings xi. 26. In Mount Ephraim. Probably 
the present Surdeh, west of Bethel. (XIV.) 

132. Z/2; (Ha Ziz) (ascent of), 2 Chronicles XX. 16. Probably, 
connected with the name Hazezon Tamar, for Engedi, 
Genesis xiv. 7 ; 2 Chronicles xx. 2. The name Hasasali 
was found to apply to the plateau north-west of Engedi. 

This list contains 132 names. Out of about 620 topo- 
graphical names mentioned in the Bible in Western Palestine, 
about 430 have now been identified (or about two-thirds). 
Out of these 430 a total of 132, as above shown (or about a 
third), are thus due to the survey. 


On the other hand, out of about 200 names of the places 
in the Sinaitic Desert, or in the country east of Jordan, 70 
only are known, including the latest identifications of the 
American survey and of Lieutenant Conder (Handbook to 
the Bible), being a proportion of little over one-third. Many 
important sites, such as Mahanaim, Jabesh Gilead, &c., 
remain still to be recovered east of Jordan. 

In addition to this list published in 1880, several new 
identifications by Captain Conder will be found in the later 
Quarterly Statements, and those of the Eastern Survey are 
given in " Heth and Moab." 


Abana River, 136. 

Abel Meholah, 112. 

Abdeh (Eboda), 71. 

Acra, 49. 

Acre, Plain of, 84. 

Adasa, 119. 

Admeh (ed Damieh), 82, loi. 

Adullam, 106, 118, ijo. 

^non, 120, 121. 

Ai, 99. 

'Ain Abu Beweireh, 144. 

'Ain Feshkhah, 92. 

'Ain el Haramlyeh, 119. 

'Ain Hawarah, 145. 

'Ain Hudherah, 66. 

'Ain el Jem'ain, 1 14. 

'Ain Tabighah, 44. 

'Ain et Tin, 44. 

Akabah and Gulf, 142-145. 

Alemoth (Alnion), 118. 

Amman (Sassanian Building), 17S, 

183, 184, 199. 
Ancient Monuments, 138. 
Antonia, Tower of, 49. 
Ansierlyeh Mountains, 152. 
Antipatris, 86, 120, 123. 
Annath (Aina), 123. 
Aqueduct (the great tunnel from the 

spring to the Pool of Silciam), 158. 
Arak el Emir, 136, 138, 199. 
Archi (Arik), 1 11. 
Argob or Trachonitis (el Lejah), 134. 
Armitheaa, 80. 
Arnon River, 135. 
Aroer, 135. 
Aroer of Judah, 70. 
Arunalha or Ilanruta, 155. 
Ascension, Site of, 63. 
Ashdod, 119. 

Ataroth Adan (ed Damieh), in. 
Athlit, 199. 
el Augeh, 71. 
Auvanitis (Ilauran), 134. 

Avim, 80. 

el Awamid (Inscription at), 40. 
'Ayun Abu Meharib, 91. 
Azazimeh, Mountains of, 72. 

Baal, Altars of, 65. 

Baal Meon, 139. 

Baal Peor, 137. 

Baalbek, and church at, ^^, 45. 

Bab el Burak, 45. 

Baheiret Homs, 153. 

Baheiret Koteineh, 153. 

Bahurim, 118. 

Bamoth Baal, 137. 

Banias, 39, 40. 

Baris, Tower of, 158. 

Bashan, Land of, 134. 

Basilica of the Antastasis, 160. 

Batanrea, 135. 

Beersheba, 69, 70, 102, 103, 104. 

Beisau, 39, 115. 

Beibin, Church at, 39. 

Beit Jibrin, Church at, 39. 

Berea (Bireh), 119. 

Bethany, ii8. 

Bethel, loO. 

Bethabara, 94, 95, 96, 97, 112. 120, 

Bethaven, 100. 
Bethulia, 119. 
Beth Dagon, 107. 
Bethlehem, 99. 

Bethphnge, Stone of, 132, 177, 178. 
Beth Rima, 123. 
Bethsaida, 121, 135. 
Berzetho (Bir ez Zeit), 119. 
Beyrout, 39. 
Bezek, 115. 
Bezetha, Vase of, 132. 
Biblical Names, 80. 
Bir Eyub, 160, 166. 
Bireh, Cluirch at, 39. 
Birket Mamilla, 160, 



Birket Israil, 159. 
Birket es Sultan, 160. 
Bitzaanaim near Kedesh, 82, 84. 
Borceos (Berkit), 123. 
Boundaries, Tribal, iio. 
Bozez, Cliff of, 1 16. 
Bozrah, 136. 
Brook Besor, So. 
Brook Cherith, 80. 

Caesarea, 39, 199. 
Ccesarea Phillippi, 135. 
Ca'.lirrhoe, 136. 
Calvary, 120, 123. 
Cana of Galilee, 96, 120. 
Capernaum (near Athlit), 89. 
Capernaum (Tell Hum), 99, 120, 

Caphar Saba, 87. 
Cherith, Brook, 93. 
Chorazin (Kerazeh), 41, 42. 
Cities of the Plain, 91, loi. 
Constantine's Basilica, 50. 
Constantine's Church of the Anas- 

tasis, 49, 53. 
Cotton Clrotto, 158. 
Crocodile River, 98. 

Damascus, 40, 44, 135. 

Datreiyeh, 71. 

David,' Tower of, 59, 159, 205. 

Debbet er Ramleh, 142. 

Debir, 71, 106, in. 

Deir Aban, 115. 

Deir el Kal'ah, Temple at, 40. 

Dibcn and the Moabite Stone, 135, 

136, 160-165. 
Dog River, 152. 
Dome of the Rock, 49, 53, 59, 63, 

Double Gate, 57, 59, 160. 

Kdom, 72. 
Elah, 116. 
Elealah, 139. 
Elcasa (Hasa), 119. 
Kleph, 80. 

Kleutherus River, 152. 
hlusa (Khalasah), 70. 
Emmaus, 120, 121. 
Emniaus Nicopolis, 120. 

Endor, 84. 

En Ilarod, 112. 

En Rogel, 166. 

Esek, Well of, 70, I02, 104. 

Eshcol, 66, 80. 

Eshtaol, 1 14. 

Etam, Rock, 89. 

Ezcl, The Stone, 80. 

Gadara, 135. 

Galilee, Lake or Sea of, 76, 82, 98, 

Galilee, Upper, 82, 84. 
Galilee, Synagogues and Chronicles 

of, 47, 79- 
Gate Beautiful, The, 49. 
Gate Gennath, 45, 49, 160. 
(}ates of the Walls, 49. 
Gath, 80, 116, 125. 
Gaza Jupiter, 170-173. 
Gederoth, 107. 
Genesareth, Lake of, 39, 43. 
Gerar, 102, 104. 
Gethsemane, 80. 
Gezer, 106, 173, 177. 
Ghor, The, 143, 144, 146. 
Ghor es Seiseban, loi, 185. 
Gibeah, 99. 
Gibeah Phinehas, loS. 
Gibeah of Saul, 116. 
Gilboa, Mount, 114. 
Gilead, Land of, 135. 
Gilead, Mount, 112, 115. 
Gilgal (Jiljidieh), 106. 
Golan (Jaulan), 134. 
Golden Gate, 160. 
Golgotha, Tomb near, 186 192, 2(2. 
Clomorrah, 92. 
(Ireat Plain, 82. 
(iulf of Suez, 146. 

Hachilah, 116, 118. 
Hagar's Well, 66. 
Haifa, 78. 

Hamath Inscriptions, 178. 
Haradah, 66. 

Haram esh Sherif (site of Temple), 
49. 5o> 52, 53. 55. 57. 59, 60, 62. 
Hareth, 116. 
Harosheth, 84. 
Harran, 40. 



Hauran, 147, 148. 

Hazor, 106. 

Hazeroth, 65. 

Head of Hadrian, 170. 

Hebron, 39, 54, 66, 99, 102. 

Herod's Temple and Greek Inscrijj- 

tion, 45, 132. 
Herodian Temple, 45. 
Heshbon, 135, 139, 183. 
Hezekiah's Pool, 159. 
Hippicus, Tower of, 49. 
Holy Sepulchre (Tomb belnw), 59. 
Holy Sepulchre, Church of the, 49, 

50, 206. 
Holy Sepulchre, Site of, 62, 63. 
Holy Fire, 54. 
Horns, 1 52-1 55- 
Hora, 71. 
Huleh, Lake of, 147, 148. 

Ibzik (Bezek), 81. 
Irbid, Synagogue at, 
Iturrea, 134. 


Jabbok River, 39, 136, 1 84. 

Jacob's Well, 54, 99, 121, 192-197. 

Jahaz, 135. 

jaulan, 147. 

jazer, 137. 

Jebel es Somrah, 144. 

Jebel Usdum, 148. 

Jericho, 91. 

Jerusalem, 39, 45, 59, 69. 

Jezreel, 112, 115, 118. 

Jishuh, 87. 

Jordan, 39. 

Jordan, Fords of the, 95, 97. 

Jordon Valley, 143, 147, 14S. 

Joshua's Tomb, 107. 

Kadesh Barnea, 66, 67, 6^. 
Kadesh of the Hittites, 136, 150 156. 
Kanah, lirook. III. 
Kal'at Jalud, 59. 
Karkor, 112. 

Kasyum, Inscription at, 40. 
Kades, Temple at, Inscription and 
Excavation, 40, 45, 82. 

Kefr Haris, 107. 

Kefr Birim, Inscription and Syna 

gogue, 40, 41. 
Kepharnome, 44. 
Kerak, 72, 136. 
Kedron Valley, 166. 
Khan Minyeh, 44. 
Khersa (Gergesa), 44. 
Kibroth Hattaavah, 65. 
Kir Haraseth, 135. 
Kirjath Jearim, no, 114, 115. 
Kishon River, 84. 
Kubbet es Sahkra, 62. 
Kurmel, 71- 
Kuryet el Anab, Church at, 39. 

Lacus Serbonicus, 150. 
Lebanon, 150, 152. 
Leben (Curdled Milk), 
Llsan, 72. 

Luhith, Ascent of, 137, 
Lydda, Church at, 39. 


Machoerus, 136. 

Mahanneh Dan, 1 14. 

Main, 71. 

Makkedah, 106. 

Mamre, 80. 

Maon, 118. 

el Mereighat, 185. 

Marianme, Tower of, 49. 

Masada, 199. 

ALashita, 136. 

Masi, Inscription at, 40. 

Medeba, 139. 

Megiddo, 84, 119. 

Mejarkon, 87. 

Mejdel Anjar, Temple at, 40. 

Michmash, 99, lOO. 

Millo, 49. 

Minnilh, 137, 184. 

Minyeh, 122. 

Moab, 72, 135. 

Modin, 119, 132. 

Mokattani Hills (above Cairo), 145. 

Monuments in the Kedron N'alle), 

Mosque el Aksa, 160. 

Mount Azotus, 1 19. 



Mount Gerizim (Church of Justinian), 

39, 45- 

Mount Hor, 72, 143. 

Mount Nebo, 184. 

Mount Zion, 59. 

el Muntar (Izuk, scene of the scape- 
goat, 104. 

Naamah, 107. 

Nabhis, Mosque and Inscription at, 

Nagb es Sahii, 142. 

Nahr el Kelb, Tablets of Sennac- 
herib, 40, 41. 

Nawamls, 64. 

Nazareth, 91. 

Nebo, 139. 

Nebratein, Inscription at, 40, 41. 

Neby Hazkln (Ezekiel's Mountain), 

Neby Serakah, 87. 

Negeb of Jerahmeel, 71. 

Negeb or South Country, 71, 72. 

Nephtoah, Waters of, 100. 

Nicodenuis, Tomb of, 15S. 

Nob, 80, 116. 

Nobah, 112. 

Ophel, Wall of, 58, 158. 
Orontes, 151, 153. 

Patris (Budrus), 87. 
Pennel, 112. 
Tetra, 72, 142, 199. 
I'harphar River, 136. 
I'hasaclus, Tower of, 49. 
Pisgah, 139. 

Psephinus, Tower of, 49. 
Pool of Bethesda, 49. 
Pool of Bathsheba, 160. 

Uabbath Ammon, 136, I 38. 

Rabbath Moab, 135. 

Rabbith, in. 

Rachel's Tomb, 54. 

Ramath Lehi, 91. 

Ramoth (lilead, 135. 

Ras el Ain, 87, 88. 

Red Sea, 45. 

Rehoboth, Wells of, 70, 102. 

Riblah, 15-5. 

Robinson's Arch, 190. 

Round P'ountain, 44. 

Ruad, Island of, 150, 152. 

Rude Stone Monuments, 183- 1 86. 

es Safieh, 144. 

Sahm or Salem, 121. 

Salt Sea, or Dead Sea, loi, 142, 

144, 146, 148. 
Samaria, 119, 123. 
Samaritans, Holy Place or Rock of 

the, 39, 45. 
Samaritans, Pentateuch, 45. 
Samaritan Temple. 45. 
Samrat Fiddan, 148. 
Sebastiyeh (Samaria), 39. 
Sechu, 116. 

Second Wall, 59, 63, 205, 2IO. 
Sela-ham Mahlekoth, 116. 
Seneh, Cliff of, 115, 116. 
Sharon, Plain of, 86. 
Shechem, 99, 115. 
Sibmah, 137. 
Siloam, Vill of, 165. 
Siloam, Pool and Inscription of, 

160, 166, 169, 170. 
Sinai, Peninsula of, 64, 68. 
.Sinnabris, 122. 
Sitnah, Well of, 99. 
Sirah, Well of, 99. 
Sisera, Flight of, 82. 
Solomon's Palace, 59. 
Solomon's Stables, 57, 160. 
Sorek, Valley of, 115. 
Stone of Bohan, 129. 
Succoth, loi, 112. 
Survey of Western Palestine, 47, 55, 

Sychar, 120-122. 

Taanach, 84. 

Tabbath, 1 12. 

Tabor, Mount, 82, 84. 

Tarichea (Kerak), 122. 

Telaslr, 118, 1 19. 

Tell Arad, 71. 

Tell el Ful, 1 16. 

Tell Hum, 41, 42, 43, 47. 

Tell Neby Mendeh, 154, 155. 

Tell Salhiyeh (Inscription*, 40, 44. 

Tell Zif, 71. 



Temple, Inscribed Stone of the, 


Wady Hamr, 145, 


Wady Hesban, 183, 185. 

Temple Walls, 159. 

Wady el Hessi, 142. 

Till, Desert of the, 64, 142. 

Wady Jideid, 1S4, 

Tiphsah, 119, 120. 

Wady Kefrein, 185. 

Tirzah, Royal City. 81, 82. 

Wady Madarah, 71. 

Tombs of the Judges, 159. 

Wady Marreh, 71. 

Tombs of the Kings, 158. 

Wady Musa, 142. 

Tripoli, 152. 

Wady Muweileh, 65. 

Tyre, 199. 

Wady Nasb, 141, 142. 

Tyropceon Valley, 49, 52, 58. 

Wady Rubadiyeh, 43, 44. 
Wady Rukhmeh, 71. 

Umm el Am^^d, 41. 

Wady Semakh, 44. 
Wady esh Seikh, 145. 

Valley of Achor (Kelb Valley), 


Wady Sitte Miriam, 166. 

Valley of Jezreel (Wady Jalin), 


Wady Solaf, 145. 


Wady Surar, 39. 

Vase of the Temple, 197, 198. 

Wady Watiyeh, 145. 

Virgin Fountain, 160, 165, 166 

Wady Zelegah, 142. 
Wady Zerka M"ain, 1S4. 

Wady el Abyadh, 71. 

Wady Amarah, 145. 

Yakhmor (Roebuck), 105. 

Wady Amud, 43. 

Yarun, Church and Inscription 


Wady el Arabah, Survey of, 




Yekin (Cain), 102. 

Wady Biyar, 142. 

Wady Eyub, 166. 

Zamira (es Sumra), 152. 

Wady Far' ah, 121. 

Zeboim, 92. 

Wady Faynn, 67. 

Zephath, 69, 70. 

Wady Feiran, 145. 

Zererath, 112. 

Wady Fer'aun (I'haraoh's Va 


Ziklag, 80, 116. 


Ziph, The Wood of, 116. 

Wady Fik, 44. 

Zoar, loi. 

Wady Gharandel, 145. 

Zoheleth Stone, 165. 

Wady Goweisah, 145. 

Zophim, Field of, 137. 

Wady Hamman, 43, 44. 

Zoreah, 114. 

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